Wondering How To Make Your Sodium Polyacrylate Rock? Read This!

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03 August 2021

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<p> This anti-washout CPC modified by PAAS has potential application prospects in orthopedic surgery. Electrophoretic mobility was converted into zeta potential using the mathematical procedures of O’Brien and White; in this conversion the colloid particles were treated as spheres with a number average radius of 193 nm. sodium polyacrylates demonstrated that the anti-washout property of CPC is often associated with cohesion.1 Baroud et al.25 proposed that using high-viscosity cement could effectively prevent extraosseous cement leakage, which often occurs during the vertebroplasty procedures. Using expansion microscopy, MIT scientists have developed a new technique to imaging biological samples with accuracy at the scale of 10 nanometers. It took Boyden and his team four years to perfect the technique. How has the global Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) market performed so far and how will it perform in the coming years? “When the bronco craze started some years ago, we were shocked because we only knew it as a cough syrup that every parent kept in their home, especially during winter.</p>

<p> The double-coated slow-release urea fertilizer has water-retention capacity. The urea slow-release time can reach 500 min in water. The experimental results indicated that the coating materials had a good slow-release property for urea release. The effects of the molecular weight of PPC, the amount of SPHR and SA on the slow release behavior of urea were investigated. The effects of PAAS on the washout resistance, injectability, rheological properties, setting time, compressive strength, porosity, phase, microstructure, and in vitro cellular behaviors were comprehensively investigated. The aim of this study is to develop a novel injectable CPC, which not only has a noticeably improved anti-washout property, but also avoids prolonging setting time and markedly reducing injectability and mechanical strength. This study reports the effectiveness of sodium polyacrylate (PAAS) in the enhancement of anti-washout ability of CPC. Generally speaking, smaller amount of PAAS adsorbed on the surface of CPC particles would weaken interface between CPC particles and result in the decrease of compressive strength. Chen et al.32 found the similar results that a higher weight ratio of polyacrylic acid to CPC was feasible to increase the compressive strength of CPC samples. In this study, larger amount of PAAS in CPC matrix would tend to form a homogeneous gel with three dimensional network structure, wrapping cement particles together by forming cross-links between carboxyl groups and calcium ions.</p>

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<p> A low content of PAAS slightly reduced the compressive strength of CPC, but the compressive strength of CPC gradually increased with increasing PAAS content. The washout resistance, injectability, rheological property, setting time, compressive strength, phase, microstructure, and in vitro cell behaviors of the modified CPC were evaluated. This would contribute to the increase in compressive strength of CPC when the PAAS content increased. Previous studies revealed that the addition of citric acid,4 mesoporous bioactive glass,5 magnesium phosphate,3 and wollastonite6 could effectively shorten the setting time and improve the anti-washout property of CPC. Many liquid or solid substances have been used to reduce setting time of CPC. In this study, an attempt was made to improve anti-washout property of injectable CPC by introducing PAAS. Meanwhile, PAAS hardly affected the precipitation of hydroxyapatite (HAp), setting time, and microstructure. Accelerating the setting process and improving cohesion are both effective ways to improve the anti-washout property of injectable CPCs.</p>

<p> Numerous synthetic or natural polymers, such as sodium alginate,7 chitosan,8-10 modified starch,10 hydroxypropyl methylcellulose,11-13 polylactide,14 and xanthan gum,3 are efficient additives for improving the cohesion of CPC paste. By contrast, the extrusion force of CPC pastes with PAAS was typically characterized by an initial accelerated increase stage, a subsequent smooth plateau stage, and a final rapid increase stage. The accelerated extrusion force at the initial stage was caused by the yield stress that must be applied to make the paste start flowing. The viscosity of CPC paste increased with the increase of PAAS content (Fig. 2(a)). PAAS acted as a binder to increase the cohesion of the cement paste, restraining the penetration of liquid into the cement paste and the separation of the CPC particles and decreasing the mass loss during shaking. The anti-washout ability of calcium phosphate cement (CPC) is essential for its application in massive hemorrhage regions. However, the undesirable anti-washout property of CPC inhibits its broader application.</p>

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