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EastEnders is a created by and which has been broadcast on since 1985. Set in in the in the fictional Borough of , the programme follows the stories of local residents and their families as they go about their daily lives. Initially there were two 30-minute episodes per week but since 2001 episodes have been broadcast every apart from Wednesdays. In 2013, the average audience share for an episode was around 30 per cent. Today, EastEnders remains a significant programme in terms of the BBC's success and audience share, and also in the history of British television drama, tackling many dilemmas that are considered to be controversial and issues in and social life previously unseen on United Kingdom mainstream television. As of May 2016 , EastEnders has won nine and the Award for Best Soap for 14 years running from 1997 to 2012 , as well as twelve for Most Popular Serial Drama and 11 awards for Best Soap at the. It has also won 13 TV Quick and TV Choice Awards for Best Soap, six for Soap of The Year, four Awards for Best Continuing Drama and has been inducted into the Hall of Fame. Conception and preparations for broadcast In March 1983, under two years before EastEnders ' first episode was broadcast, the show was a vague idea in the mind of a handful of BBC executives, who decided that what needed was a popular bi-weekly drama series that would attract the kind of mass audiences that ITV was getting with. The outline that Reid presented was vague: two episodes a week, 52 weeks a year. After the concept was put to them on 14 March 1983, Smith and Holland then went about putting their ideas down on paper; they decided it would be set in the East End of London. There was anxiety at first that the viewing public would not accept a new soap set in the south of England, though research commissioned by lead figures in the BBC revealed that southerners would accept a northern soap, northerners would accept a southern soap and those from the , as Julia Smith herself pointed out, did not mind where it was set as long as it was somewhere else. This was the beginning of a close and continuing association between EastEnders and audience research, which, though commonplace today, was something of a revolution in practice. The show's creators were both Londoners, but when they researched Victorian squares, they found massive changes in areas they thought they knew well. When developing EastEnders, both Smith and Holland looked at influential models like Coronation Street, but they found that it offered a rather outdated and nostalgic view of working-class life. Only after EastEnders began, and featured the characters of and , did Coronation Street start to feature black characters, for example. They came to the conclusion that Coronation Street had grown old with its audience, and that EastEnders would have to attract a younger, more socially extensive audience, ensuring that it had the longevity to retain it for many years thereafter. They also looked at but found there was a lack of central meeting points for the characters, making it difficult for the writers to intertwine different storylines, so EastEnders was set in. A previous UK soap set in an East End market was 's between 1967 and 1969. However this show, which graduated from one showing a week to two in three separate series the latter series being shown in different time slots across the ITV network was very different in style and approach to EastEnders. Smith and Holland had eleven months in which to write, cast and shoot the whole thing. However, in February 1984, they did not even have a title or a place to film. Both Smith and Holland were unhappy about the January 1985 launch date, favouring November or even September 1984 when seasonal audiences would be higher, but the BBC stayed firm, and Smith and Holland had to concede that, with the massive task of getting the Elstree Studios operational, January was the most realistic date. However, this was later to be changed to February. The project had a number of working titles— Square Dance, Round the Square, Round the Houses, London Pride and East 8. It was the latter that stuck E8 is the postcode for Hackney in the early months of creative process. However, the show was renamed after many casting agents mistakenly thought the show was to be called Estate, and the fictional postcode E20 was created, instead of using E8. Initial character creation and casting , and were Walford's original pensioners. After they decided on the filming location of in , Smith and Holland set about creating the 23 characters needed, in just 14 days. They took a holiday in Playa de los Pocillos, , and started to create the characters. Holland created the , drawing on his own background. His mother, Ethel Holland, was one of four sisters raised in Walthamstow. Her eldest sister, Lou, had married a man named Albert Beale and had two children, named Peter and Pauline. These family members were the basis for , and. Holland also created Pauline's unemployed husband , their children and , Pete's wife and their son. Smith used her personal memories of East End residents she met when researching Victorian squares. Other characters created included Jewish doctor , the Anglo-Cypriot Osman family, , and baby , black father and son, and , single mother and Bangladeshi couple and. The characters of and were created to show a modern couple with outwardly mobile pretensions, and to show an outsider; someone who did not fit in with other residents. It was decided that he would be a former soldier, as Holland's personal experiences of ex-soldiers were that they had trouble fitting into society after being in the army. When they compared the characters they had created, Smith and Holland realised they had created a cross-section of East End residents. The Beale and Fowler family represented the old families of the East End, who had always been there. The Osmans, Jefferys and Carpenters represented the more modern diverse ethnic community of the East End. Debbie, Andy and Mary represented more modern-day individuals. Once they had decided on their 23 characters, they returned to London for a meeting with the BBC. Everyone agreed that EastEnders would be tough, violent on occasion, funny and sharp—set in 's Britain—and it would start with a bang namely the death of. They decided that none of their existing characters were wicked enough to have killed Reg, so a 24th character, was added to the line-up. He was a racist thug, who often tried to lead other young characters astray. When all the characters had been created, Smith and Holland set about casting the actors for the show. Final preparations EastEnders original titles sequence, 1985—1993 Through the next few months, the set was growing rapidly at Elstree, and a composer and designer had been commissioned to create the title sequence. The visual images were taken from an aircraft flying over the East End of London at 1000 feet. Approximately 800 photographs were taken and pieced together to create one big image. The credits were later updated when the was built. The launch was delayed until February 1985 due to a delay in the chat show Wogan, that was to be a part of the major revamp in BBC1's schedules. Smith was uneasy about the late start as EastEnders no longer had the winter months to build up a loyal following before the summer ratings lull. The press were invited to Elstree to meet the cast and see the lot, and stories immediately started circulating about the show, about a rivalry with who were launching their own market-based soap, and about the private lives of the cast. Anticipation and rumour grew in equal measure until the first transmission at 7 p. Both Holland and Smith could not watch; they both instead returned to the place where it all began, Albertine's Wine Bar on Wood Lane. The next day, viewing figures were confirmed at 17 million. The reviews were largely favourable, although, after three weeks on air, BBC1's early evening share had returned to the pre- EastEnders figure of seven million, though EastEnders then climbed to highs of up to 23 million later on in the year. Following the launch, both group discussions and telephone surveys were conducted to test audience reaction to early episodes. Detailed reactions were taken after six months and since then regular monitoring was conducted. With public interest so high, the media began investigating the private lives of the show's popular stars. This referred to , and his prison sentence for the murder of a taxi driver in an attempted robbery nearly 20 years earlier. This shocking tell-all style set the tone for relations between and the press for the next 20 years. The show's first episode attracted some 17 million viewers, and it continued to attract high viewing figures from then on. By Christmas 1985, the tabloids couldn't get enough of the show. Original production designer, Keith Harris, left the show, and Holland and Smith both decided that the time had come to move on too; their final contribution coinciding with the exit of one of EastEnders most successful characters, Den Watts. Producer was given the task of running the show and he enlisted the most experienced writers to take over the storylining of the programme, including Charlie Humphreys, Jane Hollowood and. According to Brake, the departure of two of the soap's most popular characters, Den and Angie Watts , left a void in the programme, which needed to be filled. In addition, several other long-running characters left the show that year including Sue and Ali Osman and and their family; ; and. By the end of 1989 EastEnders had acquired a new executive producer, , who had previously been a successful producer on 's. Brake suggested that Ferguson was responsible for bringing in a new sense of vitality and creating a programme that was more in touch with the real world than it had been over the previous year. Changes in the 1990s A new era began in 1990 with the introduction of and —the Mitchell brothers—successful characters who would go on to dominate the soap thereafter. As the new production team cleared the way for new characters and a new direction, all of the characters introduced under Gibbon were axed from the show at the start of the year. Ferguson introduced other characters and was responsible for storylines including HIV, Alzheimer's disease and murder. After a successful revamp of the soap, Ferguson decided to leave EastEnders in July 1991. Furguson was succeeded by both and who initially shared the role as Executive Producer for EastEnders. By the end of 1992, Greaves left and Lewis became executive and series producer. He left EastEnders in 1994 after the BBC controllers demanded an extra episode a week, taking its weekly airtime from 60 to 90 minutes. Having set up the transition to the new schedule, the first trio of episodes—dubbed siege—marked Lewis's departure from the programme. She was succeeded by. Hollingworth's contributions to the soap were awarded in 1997 when EastEnders won the for Best Drama Series. Hollingworth shared the award with the next Executive Producer,. Harris was responsible for the critically panned and 's attempted assassination of , which brought in an audience of 23 million in 1996, roughly four million more than Coronation Street. In 1998 was appointed as the Executive Producer of EastEnders. In their place, Robinson introduced new long-running characters including , , , and. Yorke was given the task of introducing the soap's fourth weekly episode. He axed the majority of the Di Marco family and helped introduce popular characters such as the Slater family. In 2002, succeeded Yorke as the Executive Producer. During her time at EastEnders, Berridge introduced popular characters such as , , , , and the critically panned Indian. Berridge was responsible for some ratings success stories, such as Alfie and 's relationship, getting her comeuppance, and 's death storylines and the return of one of the greatest soap icons, , who had been presumed dead for 14 years. His return in late 2003 was watched by over 16 million viewers, putting EastEnders back at number one in the rating war with the Coronation Street. However, other storylines, such as one about a kidney transplant involving the Ferreiras, were not well received, and although Den Watts's return proved to be a ratings success, the British press branded the plot unrealistic and felt that it questioned the show's credibility. A severe press backlash followed after Den's actor, , was outed in an internet sex scandal, which coincided with a swift decline in viewer ratings. The scandal led to Grantham's departure from the soap, but the occasion was used to mark the 20th anniversary of EastEnders, with an episode showing Den's murder at the Queen Vic pub. On 21 September 2004, Berridge quit as executive producer of EastEnders following continued criticism of the show. During her time at the soap Hutchison axed multiple characters, and reportedly ordered the rewriting of numerous scripts. Newspapers reported on employee dissatisfaction with Hutchison's tenure at EastEnders. In January 2005, Hutchison left the soap and John Yorke who by this time, was the BBC Controller of Continuing Drama Series took total control of the show himself and became acting Executive Producer for a short period, before appointing to the role. Harwood stayed at EastEnders for 20 months before being promoted by the BBC. On Friday 11 November 2005, EastEnders was the first British drama to feature a two-minute silence. This episode later went on to win the for 'Best Single Episode'. In October 2006, took over as Executive Producer of EastEnders. He introduced several characters to the show, including and characters to make the show 'feel more 21st Century'. Santer also reintroduced past and popular characters to the programme. On 2 March 2007, BBC signed a deal with Google to put videos on YouTube. A behind the scenes video of EastEnders, hosted by , who played on the show, was put on the site the same day, and was followed by another on 6 March 2007. In April 2007, EastEnders became available to view on , via technology, for , and customers. The first television advert showed Dot Branning with a refugee baby, , whom she took in under the pretence of being her grandson. The second and third featured Stacey Slater and Dawn Swann, respectively. There have also been adverts in magazines and on radio. In 2009, producers introduced a limit on the number of speaking parts in each episode due to budget cuts, with an average of 16 characters per episode. EastEnders celebrated its 25th anniversary on 19 February 2010. Santer came up with several plans to mark the occasion, including the show's first , the second wedding between and and the return of Bianca's relatives, mother , and siblings , and. There'll be those moments for some of our longer-serving characters that briefly reflect on themselves and how they've changed. The characters don't know that it's the 25th anniversary of anything, so it'd be absurd to contrive too many situations in which they're reflective on the past. The main engine of that week is great stories that'll get people talking. Viewing figures peaked at 16. Other events to mark the anniversary were a spin-off DVD, EastEnders: Last Tango in Walford, and an Internet spin-off,. Bryan Kirkwood, executive producer 2010—2012 Santer officially left EastEnders in March 2010, and was replaced by. Kirkwood's first signing was the reintroduction of characters and , and his first new character was , played by. Old sets had to be rebuilt, so set was in a storyline and in reality to facilitate this. In November 2011, a storyline showed character , played by , selected to be a torch bearer for the. In reality, Fenwick carried the torch through the setting of Albert Square, with live footage shown in the. This was the second live broadcast of EastEnders. In 2012, Kirkwood chose to leave his role as executive producer and was replaced by. The show lost many of its significant characters during this period. Newman stepped down as executive producer after 16 months in the job in 2013 after the soap was criticised for its boring storylines and its lowest-ever figures pointing at around 4. He axed multiple characters from the show and introduced the extended. Treadwell-Collins announced his departure from EastEnders on 18 February 2016. Treadwell-Collins left on 6 May and O'Connor's first credited episode was broadcast on 11 July Although O'Connor's first credited episode aired in July, his own creative work was not seen onscreen until late September. Additionally, was brought in as the Head of Continuing Drama Series for BBC Scripted Studios, meaning that Kent would oversee EastEnders along with O'Connor. I think we need to be ourselves and go back to the origins of the show and what made it successful in the first place. It should be entertaining but it should also be informative—that's part of our unique BBC compact with the audience. It shouldn't just be a distraction from your own life, it should be an exploration of the life shared by the audience and the characters. This episode, which showed the funeral of interspersed with real people talking about their true-life experiences of knife crime. Public House as it looked from November 1992 to September 2010 is the main focus point of Albert Square pictured. The central focus of EastEnders is the fictional square in the fictional. In the show's narrative, Albert Square is a 19th-century street, named after 1819—1861 , the husband of 1819—1901, reigned 1837—1901. Thus, central to Albert Square is Public House also known as The Queen Vic or The Vic. The show's producers based the square's design on in. There is also a market close to Fassett Square at. The postcode for the area, , was one of the working titles for the series. The name Walford is both a street in Dalston where Tony Holland lived and a of and Stratford—the areas of Greater London where the creators were born. Other parts of the Square and set interiors are based on other locations. Walford has the of E20. The postcode district was selected as if it were part of the actual which covers much of east London although the next unused postcode district in the area was, and still is as of 2016 , E19. The E stands for Eastern. In 1917 the postal districts in London were assigned alphabetically according to the name of the main for each district. If Walford had been assigned in this scheme it would have been given E17, which is the postcode district for. In March 2011, allocated the E20 postal district to the. The postal district in EastEnders was entirely fictional up to that point, as London East postal districts stopped at E18 at that time. The show's creators opted for E20 instead of E19 as it was thought to sound better. In September 2011, the postcode for Albert Square was revealed in an episode as E20 6PQ. The cast of 2014 EastEnders is built around the idea of relationships and strong families, with each character having a place in the community. This theme encompasses the whole Square, making the entire community a family of sorts, prey to upsets and conflict, but pulling together in times of trouble. Co-creator was from a large East End family, and such families have typified EastEnders. The first central family was the combination of the , consisting of , her husband , and teenage children and and the , consisting of Pauline's twin brother , his wife and their teenage son. Pauline and Pete's mother was the domineering , who lived with Pauline and her family. Holland drew on the names of his own family for the characters. The and families have been central to many notable EastEnders storylines, the show having been dominated by the Watts in the 1980s, with the 1990s focusing on the Mitchells. The early 2000s saw a shift in attention towards the newly introduced female Slater clan, before a renewal of emphasis upon the restored Watts family beginning in 2003. Since 2006, EastEnders has largely been dominated by the Mitchell and families, though the early 2010s also saw a renewed focus on the Moon family, and from 2013 onwards, on the. The Beales are the show's longest running family, having been in EastEnders since it began in 1985. Her mother Lou Beale is renowned for her family meetings and traditional approach to family. More recently, regularly expresses the importance of a strong family unit. As the eldest sibling, he is constantly asserting his position as head of his family and reminding everyone to pull together in times of trouble. The matriarchal role is one that has been seen in various reincarnations since the programme's inception, often depicted as the centre of the family unit. The original matriarch was Lou Beale, though later examples include , , and. These characters are seen as being loud and interfering but most importantly, responsible for the well-being of the family and usually stressing the importance of family, reflecting on the past. The show often includes strong, brassy, long-suffering women who exhibit -like behaviour and stoically battle through an array of tragedy and misfortune. Such characters include , , , Pat Butcher, and. Conversely there are female characters who handle tragedy less well, depicted as eternal victims and endless sufferers, who include , , , , and. The ' is another recurring character, often popular with viewers. Often their masks a hidden and a desire to be loved. Such characters have included Pat Butcher though in her latter years, this changed , , , , , and. Another recurring male character type is the smartly dressed businessman, often involved in gang culture and crime and seen as a local authority figure. Examples include , , , and. Following criticism aimed at the show's over-emphasis on '' in 2005, such characters have been significantly reduced. Another recurring male character seen in EastEnders is the 'loser' or 'soft touch', males often comically under the thumb of their female counterparts, which have included , , and. Over the years EastEnders has typically featured a number of elderly residents, who are used to show vulnerability, , stalwart-like attributes and are sometimes used for comedic purposes. The original elderly residents included Lou Beale, and. The programme has more recently included a higher number of teenagers and successful young adults in a bid to capture the younger television audience. This has spurred criticism, most notably from the actress , who played Lou Beale in the show. It gets too lightweight. Other examples include and , and , and , and , and , and and and. The majority of EastEnders ' characters are working-class. Middle-class characters do occasionally become regulars, but have been less successful and rarely become long-term characters. In the main, middle-class characters exist as villains, such as , , and , or are used to promote positive liberal influences, such as or. EastEnders has always featured a culturally diverse cast which has included , Asian, , Polish and Latvian characters. They suggested that the average proportion of visible minority faces on EastEnders was substantially lower than the actual ethnic minority population in East London boroughs, and it therefore reflected the East End in the 1960s, not the East End of the 2000s. The programme has since attempted to address these issues. A shop was opened and various characters of different ethnicities were introduced throughout 2006 and 2007, including the family, the , and various background artists. EastEnders has had varying success with ethnic minority characters. Possibly the least successful were the Indian , who were not well received by critics or viewers and were dismissed as unrealistic by the Asian community in the UK. EastEnders has been praised for its portrayal of characters with disabilities, including , deaf , and her daughter , and. The show also features a large number of gay, lesbian and bisexual characters see , including , , , , , , , , and. EastEnders has a high cast turnover and characters are regularly changed to facilitate storylines or refresh the format. The show has also become known for the return of characters after they have left the show. Den Watts returned 14 years after he was believed to have died, a feat repeated by Kathy Beale in 2015. Speaking extras, including who has been in the show since the first episode in 1985 , have made appearances throughout the show's duration, without being the focus of any major storylines. The character of gained a reputation for making constant exits and returns since the programme's first year, until the character's death in 2015. Ian Beale is the only character to have appeared continuously from the first episode without officially leaving, and is the longest-serving character in EastEnders. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. You have to show shades of that change, but certain things are immutable, I would argue, like The Vic and the market. Storylines included the cot death of 14-month-old , 's , racism and murder of , 's unemployment reflecting the recession of the 1980s, the rape of in 1988 by and 's teenage pregnancy. The show also dealt with prostitution, mixed-race relationships, shoplifting, sexism, divorce, domestic violence and mugging. In 1989, the programme came under criticism in the British media for being too depressing, and according to writer , the programme makers were determined to change this. In 1989, there was a deliberate attempt to increase the lighter, more comic aspects of life in Albert Square. This led to the introduction of some characters who were deliberately conceived as comic or light-hearted. Brake suggested that humour was an important element in EastEnders ' storylines during 1989, with a greater amount of slapstick and light comedy than before. He classed 1989's changes as a brave experiment, and suggested that while some found this period of EastEnders entertaining, many other viewers felt that the comedy stretched the programme's credibility. As the show progressed into the 1990s, EastEnders still featured hard-hitting issues such as Mark Fowler revealing he was positive in 1991, the death of his wife from an AIDS-related illness in 1992, murder, , abortion, 's battle with breast cancer, and 's alcoholism and violence towards wife Kathy. The long-running storyline of Mark Fowler's HIV was so successful in raising awareness that in 1999, a survey by the National Aids Trust found teenagers got most of their information about HIV from the soap, though one campaigner noted that in some ways the storyline was not reflective of what was happening at the time as the condition was more common among the. Still, heterosexual Mark struggled with various issues connected to his HIV status, including public fears of contamination, a marriage breakdown connected to his inability to have children and the side effects of combination therapies. In the early 2000s, EastEnders covered the issue of 's death in a pact with her friend , the unveiling of Kat Slater's abuse by her uncle as a child which led to the birth of her daughter , who had been brought up to believe that Kat was her sister , the domestic abuse of Little Mo Morgan by husband which involved rape and culminated in Trevor's death after he tried to kill Little Mo in a fire , giving birth at the age of 15 and then putting her baby up for adoption, and 's prostitution, and. The soap also tackled the issue of mental illness and carers of people who have mental conditions, illustrated with mother and daughter and ; Jean suffers from , and teenage daughter Stacey was her carer this storyline won a Mental Health Media Award in September 2006. Stacey went on to struggle with the disorder herself. The issue of was highlighted by the characters of middle-aged and his young son. EastEnders has also covered the issue of , as and 's baby, , was born with the condition in 2006. EastEnders covered with its storyline involving Phil Mitchell's 11-year-old son and lawyer girlfriend Stella Crawford, and involving the characters and. Aside from this, soap opera staples of youthful romance, jealousy, domestic rivalry, gossip and extramarital affairs are regularly featured, with high-profile storylines occurring several times a year. The exterior set for the fictional Albert Square is located in the permanent of the , , , at , and is outdoors and open to the weather. It was initially built in 1984 with a specification that it should last for at least 15 years at a cost of £750,000. The EastEnders lot was designed by Keith Harris, who was a senior designer within the production team together with supervising art directors Peter Findley and Gina Parr. The main buildings on the square consisted originally of hollow shells, constructed from marine plywood facades mounted onto steel frames. The lower walls, pavements, etc. The set had to be made to look as if it had been standing for years. This was done by a number of means, including chipping the pavements, using chemicals to crack the top layer of the paint work, using varnish to create damp patches underneath the railway bridge, and making garden walls in such a way they appeared to sag. The final touches were added in summer 1984, these included a , that was provided by , that were provided by and a number of vehicles parked on the square. On each set all the appliances are fully functional such as gas cookers, the laundry washing machines and beer pumps. The walls were intentionally built crooked to give them an aged appearance. The drains around the set are real so rainwater can naturally flow from the streets. The square was built in two phases with only three sides being built, plus Bridge Street, to begin with in 1984, in time to be used for the show's first episode. Then in 1986, Harris added an extension to the set, building the fourth side of Albert Square, and in 1987, Turpin Road was added, which included buildings such as The Dagmar. In 1993, George Street was added, and soon after was built, to create further locations when EastEnders went from two to three episodes per week. The set was constructed by the BBC in-house construction department under construction manager Mike Hagan. The initial build took six months to complete. Most areas by the front and sometimes back doors are decorated and dressed to match the interior set to allow shots of doors being opened. However, by April 2010 a follow-up report confirmed that Albert Square would remain at Elstree Studios for at least another four years, taking the set through its 25th anniversary. The set was consequently rebuilt for high definition on the same site, using mostly real brick with some areas using a new improved plastic brick. Throughout rebuilding filming would still take place, and so scaffolding was often seen on screen during the process, with some storylines written to accommodate the rebuilding, such as the. It's been frozen in aspic for too long. The set will provide a modern, upgraded exterior filming resource for EastEnders, and will copy the appearance of the existing buildings. However, it will be 20 per cent bigger, in order to enable greater editorial ambition and improve working conditions for staff. A temporary set will be created on site to enable filming to continue while the permanent structure is rebuilt. As of May 2016, the rebuild has been delayed until 2020 and will cost in excess of £15 million, although the main part of the set is scheduled to be able to start filming in May 2019. Filming The majority of EastEnders episodes are filmed at the in , Hertfordshire. When the number of episodes was increased to four per week, more studio space was needed, so was moved from its studio at Elstree to in April 2001. Each day, between 25 and 30 scenes are recorded. During the filming week, actors can film for as many as eight to twelve episodes. Exterior scenes are filmed on a specially constructed film lot, and interior scenes take place in four studios. The episodes are usually filmed about six to eight weeks in advance of broadcast. During the winter period, filming can take place up to twelve weeks in advance, due to less daylight for outdoor filming sessions. This time difference has been known to cause problems when filming outdoor scenes. On 8 February 2007, heavy snow fell on the set and filming had to be cancelled as the scenes due to be filmed on the day were to be transmitted in April. EastEnders is normally recorded using four cameras. When a quartet is completed, it is edited by the director, videotape editor and script supervisor. The producer then reviews the edits and decides if anything needs to be re-edited, which the director will do. A week later, sound is added to the episodes and they are technically reviewed, and are ready for transmission if they are deemed of acceptable quality. Although episodes are predominantly recorded weeks before they are broadcast, occasionally, EastEnders includes current events in their episodes. In 1987, EastEnders covered the. Using a plan devised by co-creators Smith and Holland, five minutes of material was cut from four of the pre-recorded episodes preceding the election. These were replaced by specially recorded election material, including representatives from each major party, and a scene recorded on the day after the election reflecting the result, which was broadcast the following Tuesday. The result of the was referenced in 7 May 2010 episode. During the , actors filmed short scenes following the tournament's events that were edited into the programme in the following episode. Last-minute scenes have also been recorded to reference the fiftieth anniversary of the end of the in 1995, the two-minute silence on Remembrance Day 2005 2005 also being the year for the sixtieth anniversary of the end of the Second World War and the 200th anniversary of the , 's election victory in 2008, the in 2009, the , winning the at the , the , the birth of. Scotland voting no against independence in 2014, and the 100th anniversary of the beginning of the Great War. EastEnders is often filmed on location, away from the studios in Borehamwood. These episodes often air in late June or early July and again in late October or early November. The first time this happened was in December 1985 when and travelled to the to find their son , who had run away from home. In 1986, EastEnders filmed overseas for the first time, in , and this was also the first time it was not filmed on videotape, as a union rule at the time prevented producers taking a video crew abroad and a film crew had to be used instead. In 2011, it was reported that eight per cent of the series is filmed on location. If scenes during a normal week are to be filmed on location, this is done during the normal recording week. Off-set locations that have been used for filming include 1989 , September 1990 , used for scenes set in in July 1991 , November 1991 , 1997 , 1997 , December 1999 , 2001 and 2003. In 2003, filming took place at Loch Fyne Hotel and Leisure Club in , The Arkinglass Estate in and Grims Dyke Hotel, , north London, for a week of episodes set in Scotland. Other locations have included the court house, a disused office block, Evershed House, and , all in , an abandoned mental facility in , in London, and a wedding dress shop in , north London. A week of episodes in 2011 saw filming take place on a beach in and a pier in Southend-on-Sea—during which a stuntman was injured when a gust of wind threw him off balance and he fell onto rocks— with other scenes filmed on the Essex coast. In 2012, filming took place in , Somerset. In January 2013, on-location filming at in , north London, was interrupted by at least seven youths who threw a firework at the set and threatened to cut members of the crew. In October 2013, scenes were filmed on a road near in Essex. The when only two actors appear in an episode were originally done for speed; while a two-hander is being filmed, the rest of the cast can be making another episode. For its 25th anniversary in February 2010, a was broadcast in which was revealed as 's killer. Turner was told only 30 minutes before the live episode and to maintain suspense, she whispers this revelation to former lover and current father-in-law, Max Branning, in the very final moments of the live show. Many other cast members only found out at the same time as the public, when the episode was broadcast. On 23 July 2012, a segment of was screened live as carried the around Walford in preparation for the. In February 2015, for the soap's 30th anniversary, featured live inserts throughout them. Episodes airing on Tuesday 17, Wednesday 18 and Thursday 19 which featured an hour long episode and a second episode all featured at least one live insert. The show revealed that the killer of was her younger brother, Eliot Carrington , during the second episode on Thursday, after a. In a flashback episode which revisited the night of the murder, Bobby was revealed to have killed his sister. The aftermath episode, which aired on Friday 20, was completely live and explained in detail Lucy's death. Carrington was told he was Lucy's killer on Monday 16, while who plays Bobby's adoptive mother, was informed in November, due to the character playing a huge role in the cover-up of Lucy's murder. Bywater only discovered Bobby was responsible for Lucy's death on the morning of Thursday, 19 February, several hours before they filmed the scenes revealing Bobby as Lucy's killer. Post-production Each episode should run for 27 minutes and 15 seconds, however, if any episode runs over or under then it is the job of post-production to cut or add scenes where appropriate. As noted in the 1994 behind-the-scenes book, EastEnders: The First 10 Years, after filming, tapes were sent to the videotape editor, who then edited the scenes together into an episode. The videotape editor used the director's notes so they knew which scenes the director wanted to appear in a particular episode. The producer might have asked for further changes to be made. The episode was then copied onto. The final process was to add the audio which included background noise such as a train or a jukebox music and to check it met the 's technical standard for broadcasting. Since 2010, EastEnders no longer uses tapes in the recording or editing process. After footage is recorded, the material is sent digitally to the post production team. The editors then assemble all the scenes recorded for the director to view and note any changes that are needed. The sound team also have the capability to access the edited episode, enabling them to dub the sound and create the final version. Budgets and costs According to the book How to Study Television, in 1995 EastEnders cost the BBC £40,000 per episode on average. A 2012 agreement between the BBC, the and the Personal Managers' Association set out the pay rate for EastEnders scripts as £137. The writers would be paid 75 per cent of that fee for any repeats of the episode. In 2011, it was reported that actors receive a per-episode fee of between £400 and £1,200, and are guaranteed a certain number of episodes per year, perhaps as few as 30 or as many as 100, therefore annual salaries could range from £12,000 to £200,000 depending on the popularity of a character. Some actors' salaries were leaked in 2006, revealing that was paid £150,000, received £220,000, and each received £360,000 and had a salary of £370,000. In 2017, it was revealed that and were the highest-paid actors in EastEnders, earning between £200,000 and £249,999, followed by , , , , , , and , earning between £150,000 and £199,999. A 2011 report from the NAO showed that EastEnders had an annual budget of £29. According to the NAO, BBC executives approved £500,000 of additional funding for the 19 February 2010. With a total cost of £696,000, the difference was covered from the 2009—2010 series budget for EastEnders. When repeats and omnibus editions are shown, the BBC pays additional fees to cast and scriptwriters and incurs additional editing costs, which in the period 2009—2010, amounted to £5. According to a article for 212 episodes it works out at £141,000 per episode or 3. Total annual cost Year 2002—2003 2003—2004 2004—2005 2005—2006 2006—2007 2007—2008 2008—2009 2009—2010 Cost £millions 35. A carbon literacy course was run with Heads of Departments of EastEnders attending and as a result, representatives from each department agreed to meet quarterly to share new sustainability ideas. The paper usage was reduced by 50 per cent across script distribution and other weekly documents and 20 per cent across all other paper usage. The production team now use recycled paper and recycled stationery. Also changes to working online has also saved transportation cost of distribution 2,500 DVDs per year. Sets, costumes, paste pots and paint are all recycled by the design department. Cars used by the studio are low emission vehicles and the production team take more efficient energy efficient generators out on location. Caterers no longer use polystyrene cups and recycling on location must be provided. As a result of EastEnders ' sustainability, it was awarded , an award that recognises the production's commitment to becoming a more eco-friendly television production. The albert+ logo was first shown at the end of the EastEnders titles for episode 5281 on 9 May 2016. Broadcast Since 1985, EastEnders has remained at the centre of 's primetime schedule. Since 2001, it has been broadcast at 7:30 pm on Tuesday and Thursday, and 8 pm on Monday and Friday. EastEnders was originally broadcast twice weekly at 7:00 pm on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 19 February 1985. However, in September 1985 the two episodes were moved to 7:30 pm as did not want the soap running in direct competition with , and this remained the same until 7 April 1994. The BBC had originally planned to take advantage of the 'summer break' that Emmerdale Farm usually took to capitalise on ratings, but added extra episodes and repeats so that Emmerdale Farm was not taken off the air over the summer. From 10 August 2001, EastEnders then added its fourth episode shown on Fridays. This caused some controversy as it clashed with , which at the time was moved to 8 pm to make way for an hour-long episode of rural soap Emmerdale at 7 pm. The move immediately provoked an angry response from ITV insiders, who argued that the BBC's last-minute move—only revealed at 3. In this first head-to-head battle, EastEnders claimed victory over its rival. In early 2003, viewers could watch episodes of EastEnders on digital channel before they were broadcast on BBC One. This was to coincide with the relaunch of the channel and helped BBC Three break the one million viewers mark for the first time with 1. According to the EastEnders website, there are on average 208 episodes outputted each year. Repeats EastEnders was regularly repeated at 10 pm on from the channel's launch in 1998, a practice continued by BBC Three for many years until mid-2012 with the repeat moving to 10:30 pm. From 25 December 2010 to 29 April 2011 the show was repeated on in a Simulcast with BBC Three. In 2015, the BBC Three repeat moved back to 10 pm. In February 2016, the repeat moved to W, the rebranded , after BBC Three became an online-only channel. Episodes of EastEnders are available on-demand through for 30 days after their original screening. The edition, a compilation of the week's episodes in a continuous sequence, originally aired on BBC One on Sunday afternoons, until 1 April 2012 when it was changed to a late Friday night or early Saturday morning slot, commencing 6 April 2012, though the exact time differed. It reverted to a weekend daytime slot as from January 2013 on BBC Two. In 2014, the omnibus moved back to around midnight on Friday nights, and in April 2015, the omnibus was axed, following detailed audience research and the introduction of 30-day catch up on and the planning of. The last omnibus on the BBC was shown on 24 April 2015. W took over the same-day repeat of EastEnders the first being 16 February 2016, they also returned the weekend omnibus 20 February 2016. On 10 April 2018, it was announced that W had ceased to air the repeats at the conclusion of their contract with the show. From 20 February to 26 May 1995, as part of the programme's 10th Anniversary celebrations, episodes from 1985 were repeated each morning at 10 am, starting from episode one. These included The wedding of and , The revelation of the father of Michelle's baby, a two-hander between and and the 1986 Christmas episode featuring presenting with divorce papers. EastEnders reruns began on when the channel launched in 1992. The series ran from the first episode and followed its original broadcast order until August 1996 when the channel looped back to the first episode. In October 2008, UKTV Gold ceased showing EastEnders. The last episode shown was from January 2006. On 1 December 2012, the BBC uploaded the first 54 episodes of EastEnders to YouTube, and on 23 July 2013 they uploaded a further 14 episodes bringing the total to 68. None of these episodes was available as of 7 October 2017. In April 2018 it was announced that would be showing repeats starting 6 August 2018 during weekdays at 12pm and they will also be available on-demand on the catch-up service. International Countries in which EastEnders is or has been broadcast EastEnders is broadcast around the world in many countries. New Zealand became the first to broadcast EastEnders overseas, the first episode being shown on 27 September 1985. This was followed by the Netherlands on 8 December 1986, Australia on 5 January 1987, Norway on 27 April, and Barcelona on 30 June with a Catalan dub. On 9 July 1987, it was announced that the show would be aired in the United States on. The series was broadcast in the United States until ceased broadcasts of the serial in 2003, amidst fan protests. In June 2004, the satellite television provider picked up EastEnders, broadcasting episodes starting at the point where had ceased broadcasting them, offering the serial as a pay-per-view item. Episodes air two months behind the UK schedule. Episodes from prior years are still shown on various stations in the US. Since 7 March 2017, EastEnders has been available in the United States on demand, 24 hours after it has aired in the United Kingdom via , a joint venture between and. The series was screened in Australia by from 1987 until 1991. Episodes are shown about one week after their UK broadcast. In New Zealand, it was shown by on for several years, and then on each weekday afternoon. It is shown by Mondays to Thursdays at 8 pm. Episodes are about two weeks behind the UK. EastEnders is shown on formerly in Europe and in Africa, where it is approximately six episodes behind the UK. It was also shown on BBC Prime in Asia, but when the channel was replaced by BBC Entertainment, it ceased showing the series. In Canada, EastEnders was shown on until 2010, at which point it was picked up by. In Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway, the show is now cancelled but was for decades shown on BBC Nordic channels with local subtitles. The series is simulcast with , which is widely available in the Republic, but carries advertising since its 1998 debut on Irish TV. Additionally episodes of EastEnders are available on-demand through for seven days after their original screening. It was previously shown on. In 1991 the BBC sold the programme's format rights to a Dutch production company IDTV, the programme was renamed Translation: Old North. The Dutch version was re-written from already existing EastEnders scripts. The Scripts are full of hard, sharp drama, plus great one-liners which will translate well to Holland. The show takes a look behind the scenes of the EastEnders and investigates particular places, characters or families within EastEnders. An episode of EastEnders Revealed that was commissioned for BBC Three attracted 611,000 viewers. The show was presented by and was available to digital viewers at 8:30pm on Monday nights. It was also shown after the Sunday omnibus. The series went behind the scenes of the show and spoke to some of the cast members. These are all documentaries related to current storylines in EastEnders, in a similar format to EastEnders Revealed, though not using the EastEnders Revealed name. It was written by a team of young writers and was shown three times a week on the EastEnders website from 8 January 2010. A second 10-part series started in September 2010, with twice-weekly episodes available online and an omnibus on BBC Three. On 4 April 2015, EastEnders confirmed plans for a BBC One series featuring Kat and Alfie Moon. The six-part drama, , was created by executive producer Dominic Treadwell-Collins and his team. An example of EastEnders ' popularity is that after episodes, rises significantly as viewers who have waited for the show to end begin boiling water for , a phenomenon known as. Over five minutes, power demand rises by three GW, the equivalent of 1. Ratings EastEnders is the BBC's most consistent programme in terms of ratings. It has proved highly popular and Appreciation Indexes reflected this, rising from 55—60 at the launch to 85—95 later on, a figure which was nearly 10 points higher than the average for a British soap opera. The launch show in 1985 attracted 17. The highest rated episode of EastEnders is the Christmas Day 1986 episode, which attracted a combined 30. This remains the highest rated episode of a soap in British television history. In 2001, EastEnders clashed with Coronation Street for the first time. EastEnders won the battle with 8. On 21 September 2004, , the then executive producer, quit following criticism of the show. The following day the show received its lowest ever ratings at that time 6. Emmerdale was watched by 8. The poor ratings motivated the press into reporting viewers were bored with implausible and ill-thought-out storylines. Under new producers, EastEnders and Emmerdale continued to clash at times, and Emmerdale tended to come out on top, giving EastEnders lower than average ratings. In 2006, EastEnders regularly attracted between 8 and 12 million viewers in official ratings. EastEnders received its second lowest ratings on 17 May 2007, when 4. This was also the lowest ever audience share, with just 19. This was attributed to a conflicting one-hour special episode of Emmerdale on ITV1. However, ratings for the 10 pm EastEnders repeat on BBC Three reached an all-time high of 1. However, there have been times when EastEnders had higher ratings than Emmerdale despite the two going head-to-head. The live-episode averaged 15. In January 2010, the average audience was higher than that of Coronation Street for the first time in three years. During the 30th anniversary week in which there were live elements and the climax of the storyline, 10. Later on in the same evening, a special flashback episode averaged 10. The following day, the anniversary week was rounded off with another fully live episode the second after 2010 with 9. Average, highest and lowest ratings for EastEnders by year Year Number of episodes Average viewers millions Highest rating millions Lowest rating millions 1985 91 14. It has received both praise and criticism for most of its storylines, which have dealt with difficult themes, such as violence, rape, murder and child abuse. She regarded EastEnders as a fundamental assault on the family and morality itself. She made reference to representation of family life and emphasis on psychological and emotional violence within the show. She also felt that EastEnders had been cleaned up as a result of her protests, though she later commented that EastEnders had returned to its old ways. Her criticisms were widely reported in the tabloid press as ammunition in its existing hostility towards the BBC. EastEnders has been criticised for being too violent, most notably during a storyline between and her husband. As EastEnders is shown pre-watershed, there were worries that some scenes in this storyline were too graphic for its audience. Complaints against a scene in which Little Mo's face was pushed in gravy on Christmas Day were upheld by the Broadcasting Standards Council. However, a helpline after this episode attracted over 2000 calls. The character of played by since early 1990 has been criticised on several occasions for glorifying violence and proving a bad role model to children. On one occasion following a scene in an episode broadcast in October 2002, where Phil brutally beat his godson, Jack Ryder , 31 complaints came from viewers who watched the scenes. In 2005, the BBC was accused of anti-religious bias by a committee, who cited EastEnders as an example. She quotes endlessly from the Bible and it ridicules religion to some extent. Allegations of national and racial stereotypes In 1997 , resulting in criticisms for portraying the Irish in a negatively stereotypical way. In 2008, the show was criticised for stereotyping their Asian and Black characters, by having a black single mum, , and an Asian shopkeeper,. There has been criticism that the programme does not authentically portray the ethnic diversity of the population of East London, with the programme being 'twice as white' as the real East End. Controversial storylines Some storylines have provoked high levels of viewer complaints. In August 2006, a scene involving and having sex on the floor of nightclub, and another scene involving Owen Turner violently attacking Denise Fox, prompted 129 and 128 complaints, respectively. Carly and Jake's sex scenes were later removed from the Sunday omnibus edition. In March 2008, scenes showing and boyfriend, , burying Tanya's husband Max alive, attracted many complaints. The UK communications regulator later found that the episodes depicting the storyline were in breach of the 2005 Broadcasting Code. They contravened the rules regarding protection of children by appropriate scheduling, appropriate depiction of violence before the 9 p. In September 2008, EastEnders began a grooming and paedophilia storyline involving characters , , , and. The storyline attracted over 200 complaints. In December 2010, Ronnie swapped her newborn baby, who , with 's living baby. We hope that this story will help raise the public's awareness of cot death, which claims 300 babies' lives each year. Despite the controversy however, EastEnders pulled in rating highs of 9—10 million throughout the duration of the storyline. In October 2014, the BBC defended a storyline, after receiving 278 complaints about 6 October 2014 episode where pub landlady Linda Carter was raped. On 17 November 2014 it was announced that will investigate over the storyline. On 5 January 2015, the investigation was cleared by Ofcom. This included a warning before the episode and implying the assault, rather than depicting it. Ofcom also took into account the programme's role in presenting sometimes challenging or distressing social issues. During the storyline, and talk to locals about the case and Hughes accepts a bribe. In response to the criticism, EastEnders apologised for offending real life detectives and confirmed that they use a police consultant for such storylines. In October 2012, a storyline involving , forced to hand over her baby , was criticised by the charity The Who Cares? EastEnders ' shabby portrayal of an entire profession has made a tough job even tougher. Notably, from 1985 to 1988, author and television writer Hugh Miller wrote 17 novels, detailing the lives of many of the show's original characters before 1985, when events on screen took place. Kate Lock also wrote four novels centred on more recent characters; , , and. Lock also wrote a character guide entitled Who's Who in EastEnders in 2000, examining main characters from the first 15 years of the show. Show creators Julia Smith and Tony Holland also wrote a book about the show in 1987, entitled EastEnders: The Inside Story , telling the story of how the show made it to screen. Two special anniversary books have been written about the show; EastEnders: The First 10 Years: A Celebration by Colin Brake in 1995 and EastEnders: 20 Years in Albert Square by Rupert Smith in 2005. Up to the end of 2001, but excluding 1996 and 1997, the rating was also combined with that of the omnibus though for 1993, 1994, 1995 and 1998, some ratings are not combined, as noted. Retrieved 23 December 2017. Retrieved 9 August 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2009. EastEnders won the top soap title for the 10th consecutive year, voted for by readers of Inside Soap magazine. 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Possibly the least successful were the Indian emder singles, who were not well received by critics or viewers and were dismissed as unrealistic by the Social community in the UK. Emder singles is best known for his 1603 work, Politica Methodice Digesta, revised editions were published in 1610 and 1614. Younger 9781435853805 1435853806 - Pollution, Drought, and Tainted Water Supplies, Laura La Bella 9781110415021 1110415028Helen Wilmans 9781110525997 1110525990Gilbert Parker 9781110633357 1110633351Piece J. September is one of the most interesting months in yearly calendar. The show revealed that the killer of was her younger brother, Eliot Carringtonduring the second episode on Thursday, after a. International Countries in which EastEnders is or emder singles been broadcast EastEnders is broadcast around the glad in many countries. EastEnders has been praised for its portrayal of characters with disabilities, includingdeafand her daughterand. Detailed reactions were taken after six months and since then regular monitoring was conducted. Bolino 9780929566009 0929566009W. The Dutch version was re-written from already existing EastEnders scripts. Easy to follow step-by-step instructions, online classes, and a vibrant maker community. Her image has also been the perfect spokesperson and actress for brands such as Miami Herald, AmericaTel, Florida Lottery, MCI, Movistar, among others.