13 January 2019
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Depending on the country, these prices may be shown before tax, inclusive of VAT, or inclusive of all taxes VAT and tourist tax. Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD. With an integrated portal powered by Watson, all Financial Advisors can significantly increase their business results. See the price terms and conditions of sale.
The UAE is home to some pan-Arab broadcasters, including the and. To this was added the 'Exclusive Agreements', signed in 1892, which made the a British protectorate.
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For other uses, see. The country is a of consisting of which serves as the capital , , , , , and. Each emirate is governed by a ruler; together, they jointly form the. One of the rulers serves as the. In 2013, the UAE's population was 9. United Arab Emirates You may need to display the in this article correctly. Human occupation of the present UAE has been traced back to the emergence of anatomically modern man from Africa some 125,000 BCE through finds at the Faya-1 site in ,. Burial sites dating back to the and the include the oldest known such inland site at. Following decades of maritime conflict, the coastal emirates became known as the with the signing of a Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Peace with the British in 1819 ratified in 1853 and again in 1892 , which established the Trucial States as a British. This arrangement ended with independence and the establishment of the United Arab Emirates on 2 December 1971, immediately following the British withdrawal from its treaty obligations. Six emirates joined the UAE in 1971, the seventh, , joined the federation on 10 February 1972. The are the while its natural gas reserves are the world's. The UAE's economy is the most diversified in the , while its most populous city of is an important and an international aviation and maritime trade hub. Nevertheless, the country is much less reliant on oil and gas than in previous years and is economically focusing on tourism and business. The UAE government does not levy income tax although there is a system of corporate tax in place and value added tax was established in 2018 at 5%. The UAE's rising international profile has led to it being recognised as a regional and. It is a member of the , the , the , , the and the. Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661—750 Antiquity The land of the Emirates has been occupied for thousands of years. Stone tools recovered from Jebel Faya in the emirate of Sharjah reveal a settlement of people from some 127,000 years ago and a stone tool used for butchering animals discovered at Jebel Barakah on the Arabian coast suggests an even older habitation from 130,000 years ago. There is no proof of contact with the outside world at that stage, although in time lively trading links developed with civilisations in , Iran and India's. This contact persisted and became wide-ranging, probably motivated by the trade in copper from the , which commenced around 3000 BCE. Sumerian sources talk of the UAE as home to the 'Makkan' or people. There are six major periods of human settlement with distinctive behaviours in the pre-Islamic UAE: the from 3200-2600 BCE; the spanned from 2600-2000 BCE, the e dominated from 2000—1300 BCE. From 1200 BC to the advent of Islam in Eastern Arabia, through three distinctive iron ages Iron age 1, 1200—1000 BC; Iron age 2, 1000—600 BC and Iron age 3 600—300 BC and the Mleiha period 300 BC onward , the area was variously occupied by and other forces and saw the construction of fortified settlements and extensive husbandry thanks to the development of the irrigation system. In ancient times, Al Hasa today's Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia was part of and adjoined Greater Oman today's UAE and. From the second century AD, there was a movement of tribes from Al Bahreyn towards the lower Gulf, together with a migration among the Azdite Qahtani or Yamani and Quda'ah tribal groups from south-west Arabia towards central Oman. Sassanid groups were present on the Batinah coast. In 637, Julfar in the area of today's was an important port that was used as a staging post for the Islamic invasion of the. The earliest site in the UAE was first discovered in the 1990s, an extensive monastic complex on what is now known as and which dates back to the 7th century. Thought to be Nestorian and built in 600 AD, the church appears to have been abandoned peacefully in 750 AD. It forms a rare physical link to a legacy of Christianity which is thought to have spread across the peninsula from 50 to 350 AD following trade routes. Certainly, by the 5th century, Oman had a bishop named John — the last bishop of Oman being Etienne, in 676 AD. Islam The spread of Islam to the North Eastern tip of the is thought to have followed directly from a letter sent by the Islamic prophet, , to the rulers of Oman in 630 AD, nine years after the. This led to a group of rulers travelling to , converting to Islam and subsequently driving a successful uprising against the unpopular Sassanids, who dominated the Northern coasts at the time. Following the death of Muhammad, the new Islamic communities south of the Persian Gulf threatened to disintegrate, with insurrections against the Muslim leaders. The sent an army from the capital Medina which completed its reconquest of the territory with the battle of in which 10,000 lives are thought to have been lost. This assured the integrity of the and the unification of the Arabian Peninsula under the newly emerging. The seasonal movements of these groups led to not only frequent clashes between groups but also the establishment of seasonal and semi-seasonal settlements and centres. These formed tribal groupings whose names are still carried by modern Emiratis, including the Bani Yas and Al Bu Falah of Abu Dhabi, Al Ain, Liwa and the Al Bahrain coast, the Dhawahir, Awamir, Al Ali and Manasir of the interior, the Sharqiyin of the east coast and the Qawasim to the North. By the 16th century, ports in the and part of the population that today form the coastal Iraq, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, came under the direct influence of the. At the same time, the Portuguese, English and Dutch colonial forces also appeared in the Persian Gulf region. By the 17th century, the Bani Yas confederation was the dominant force in most of the area now known as Abu Dhabi. The Portuguese maintained an influence over the coastal settlements, building in the wake of the bloody 16th-century conquests of coastal communities by and the Portuguese commanders who followed him — particularly on the east coast at , and. The charge of piracy is disputed by modern Emirati historians, including the current Ruler of Sharjah, i, in his 1986 book The Myth of Arab Piracy in the Gulf. British expeditions to protect the Indian trade from raiders at led to campaigns against that headquarters and other harbours along the coast in 1809 and subsequently 1819. The following year, Britain and a number of local rulers signed a treaty to combat piracy along the Persian Gulf coast, giving rise to the term , which came to define the status of the coastal emirates. A further treaty was signed in 1843 and, in 1853 the Perpetual Treaty of Maritime Truce was agreed. To this was added the 'Exclusive Agreements', signed in 1892, which made the a British protectorate. Under the 1892 treaty, the trucial sheikhs agreed not to dispose of any territory except to the British and not to enter into relationships with any foreign government other than the British without their consent. In return, the British promised to protect the Trucial Coast from all aggression by sea and to help in case of land attack. The Exclusive Agreement was signed by the Rulers of Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ajman, Ras Al Khaimah and between 6 and 8 March 1892. It was subsequently ratified by the and the British Government in London. British maritime policing meant that pearling fleets could operate in relative security. However, the British prohibition of the meant an important source of income was lost to some sheikhs and merchants. In 1869, the Qubaisat tribe settled at and tried to enlist the support of the Ottomans, whose flag was occasionally seen flying there. Khawr al Udayd was claimed by Abu Dhabi at that time, a claim supported by the British. In 1906, the British Political Resident, , confirmed in writing to the ruler of Abu Dhabi, 'Zayed the Great' that Khawr al Udayd belonged to his sheikhdom. British era and discovery of oil During the 19th and early 20th centuries, the thrived, providing both income and employment to the people of the Persian Gulf. The had a severe impact on the industry, but it was the of the late 1920s and early 1930s, coupled with the invention of the , that wiped out the trade. The remnants of the trade eventually faded away shortly after the , when the newly independent imposed heavy taxation on pearls imported from the. The decline of pearling resulted in extreme economic hardship in the Trucial States. Dubai in 1950; the area in this photo shows in the foreground centered on Al-Fahidi Fort ; in middle-right on the other side of the creek; and left and right in the background across the creek again from Deira The British set up a development office that helped in some small developments in the emirates. The seven sheikhs of the emirates then decided to form a council to coordinate matters between them and took over the development office. In 1952, they formed the Trucial States Council, and appointed , Dubai's 's legal advisor, as Secretary General and Legal Advisor to the Council. The council was terminated once the United Arab Emirates was formed. The tribal nature of society and the lack of definition of borders between emirates frequently led to disputes, settled either through mediation or, more rarely, force. The was a small military force used by the British to keep the peace. In 1955, the United Kingdom sided with Abu Dhabi in the latter's dispute with Oman over the , another territory to the south. A 1974 agreement between Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia would have settled the Abu Dhabi-Saudi , but this has not been ratified. The UAE's border with Oman was ratified in 2008. In 1922, the British government secured undertakings from the trucial rulers not to sign concessions with foreign companies. Aware of the potential for the development of natural resources such as oil, following finds in Persia from 1908 and Mesopotamia from 1927 , a British-led oil company, the IPC , showed an interest in the region. The APOC, later to become British Petroleum, or BP had a 23. From 1935, onshore concessions to explore for oil were agreed with local rulers, with APOC signing the first one on behalf of Petroleum Concessions Ltd PCL , an associate company of IPC. APOC was prevented from developing the region alone because of the restrictions of the , which required it to operate through IPC. A number of options between PCL and the trucial rulers were signed, providing useful revenue for communities experiencing poverty following the collapse of the pearl trade. However, the wealth of oil which the rulers could see from the revenues accruing to surrounding countries such as Iran, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar and Saudi Arabia remained elusive. The first bore holes in Abu Dhabi were drilled by IPC's operating company, Petroleum Development Trucial Coast Ltd PDTC at Ras Sadr in 1950, with a 13,000-foot-deep 4,000-metre bore hole taking a year to drill and turning out dry, at the tremendous cost at the time of £1 million. In 1953, a subsidiary of BP, D'Arcy Exploration Ltd, obtained an offshore concession from the ruler of Abu Dhabi. BP joined with later to form operating companies, Abu Dhabi Marine Areas Ltd ADMA and Dubai Marine Areas Ltd DUMA. A number of undersea oil surveys were carried out, including one led by the famous marine explorer. In 1958, a floating platform rig was towed from Hamburg, Germany, and positioned over the Umm Shaif pearl bed, in Abu Dhabi waters, where drilling began. In March, it struck oil in the Upper Thamama, a rock formation that would provide many valuable oil finds. This was the first commercial discovery of the Trucial Coast, leading to the first exports of oil in 1962. ADMA made further offshore discoveries at Zakum and elsewhere, and other companies made commercial finds such as the Fateh oilfield off Dubai and the Mubarak field off Sharjah shared with Iran. PDTC had continued its onshore exploration activities, drilling five more bore holes that were also dry, but on 27 October 1960, the company discovered oil in commercial quantities at the Murban No. In 1962, PDTC became the Abu Dhabi Petroleum Company. As oil revenues increased, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, , undertook a massive construction program, building schools, housing, hospitals and roads. When Dubai's oil exports commenced in 1969, Sheikh , the ruler of Dubai, was able to invest the revenues from the limited reserves found to spark the diversification drive that would create the modern of Dubai. Independence was the first President of the United Arab Emirates and is recognised as the father of the nation. By 1966, it had become clear the could no longer afford to administer and protect what is now the United Arab Emirates. British debated the preparedness of the to defend the sheikhdoms. On 24 January 1968, British Prime Minister announced the government's decision, reaffirmed in March 1971 by Prime Minister to end the treaty relationships with the seven Trucial Sheikhdoms, that had been, together with Bahrain and Qatar, under British protection. Days after the announcement, the ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh , fearing vulnerability, tried to persuade the British to honour the protection treaties by offering to pay the full costs of keeping the British Armed Forces in the Emirates. The British government rejected the offer. After Labour MP informed Sheikh Zayed of the news of British withdrawal, the nine Persian Gulf sheikhdoms attempted to form a union of Arab emirates, but by mid-1971 they were still unable to agree on terms of union even though the British treaty relationship was to expire in December of that year. Fears of vulnerability were realized the day before independence. An Iranian destroyer group broke formation from an exercise in the lower Gulf, sailing to the. The islands were taken by force, civilians and Arab defenders alike allowed to flee. A British warship stood idle during the course of the invasion. A destroyer group approached the island as well. Meanwhile, Saudi Arabia laid claim to swathes of Abu Dhabi. Originally intended to be part of the proposed Federation of Arab Emirates, Bahrain became independent in August, and Qatar in September 1971. When the British-Trucial Sheikhdoms treaty expired on 1 December 1971, they became fully independent. On 2 December 1971, at the Dubai Guesthouse, now known as Union House, six of the emirates agreed to enter into a union called the United Arab Emirates. Ras al-Khaimah joined later, on 10 January 1972. In February 1972, the Federal National Council FNC was created; it was a 40-member consultative body appointed by the seven rulers. The UAE joined the Arab League on 6 December 1971 and the United Nations on 9 December. It was a founding member of the in May 1981, with Abu Dhabi hosting the first GCC summit. UAE forces joined the allies against Iraq after the invasion of Kuwait in 1990. Post-Independence period View of The UAE supported from the US and other nations engaged in the war against the Taliban in Afghanistan 2001 and Saddam Hussein in Iraq 2003 as well as operations supporting the Global for the at located outside of Abu Dhabi. The air base also supported Allied operations during the and. The country had already signed a agreement with the U. In January 2008, France and the UAE signed a deal allowing France to set up a permanent military base in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. The UAE joined international military operations in Libya in March 2011. Sharjah city skyline On 2 November 2004, the UAE's first president, , died. His eldest son, Sheikh , succeeded as Emir of Abu Dhabi. In accordance with the constitution, the UAE's Supreme Council of Rulers elected Khalifa as president. Sheikh succeeded Khalifa as Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi. In January 2006, , the prime minister of the UAE and the ruler of Dubai, died, and the crown prince assumed both roles. The first ever national elections were held in the UAE on 16 December 2006. A small number of hand-picked voters chose half of the members of the Federal National Council, an advisory body. UAE has largely escaped the , which other countries have had; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and because they sought reforms. Furthermore, some people have had their nationality revoked. Mindful of the protests in nearby Bahrain, in November 2012 the UAE outlawed online mockery of its own government or attempts to organise public protests through social media. Satellite image of United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates is situated in Middle East, bordering the and the , between Oman and Saudi Arabia; it is in a strategic location slightly south of the , a vital transit point for world. It shares a 530-kilometre 330 mi border with Saudi Arabia on the west, south, and southeast, and a 450-kilometre 280 mi border with Oman on the southeast and northeast. The land border with Qatar in the area is about nineteen kilometres 12 miles in the northwest; however, it is a source of. Following Britain's military departure from the UAE in 1971, and its establishment as a new state, the UAE laid claim to islands resulting in disputes with Iran that remain unresolved. The UAE also disputes claim on other islands against the neighboring state of Qatar. The largest emirate, , accounts for 87% of the UAE's total area 67,340 square kilometres 26,000 sq mi. The smallest emirate, , encompasses only 259 km 2 100 sq mi see figure. The UAE coast stretches for more than 650 km 404 mi along the southern shore of the Persian Gulf. Most of the coast consists of that extend far inland. The largest is at Dubai, although other ports have been dredged at Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, and elsewhere. Numerous islands are found in the Persian Gulf, and the ownership of some of them has been the subject of international disputes with both Iran and Qatar. The smaller islands, as well as many and shifting sandbars, are a menace to navigation. Strong tides and occasional windstorms further complicate ship movements near the shore. The UAE also has a stretch of the coast of the Gulf of Oman, although the , the very tip of Arabia by the Strait of Hormuz, is an of Oman separated by the UAE. South and west of Abu Dhabi, vast, rolling merge into the Rub al-Khali Empty Quarter of Saudi Arabia. The desert area of Abu Dhabi includes two important oases with adequate underground water for permanent settlements and cultivation. The extensive is in the south near the undefined border with Saudi Arabia. About 100 km 62 mi to the northeast of Liwa is the oasis, which extends on both sides of the Abu Dhabi-Oman border. Prior to withdrawing from the area in 1971, Britain delineated the internal borders among the seven emirates in order to preempt territorial disputes that might hamper formation of the federation. In general, the rulers of the emirates accepted the British intervention, but in the case of boundary disputes between Abu Dhabi and Dubai, and also between Dubai and Sharjah, conflicting claims were not resolved until after the UAE became independent. The most complicated borders were in the Mountains, where five of the emirates contested jurisdiction over more than a dozen enclaves. Flora and fauna trees growing in desert suburbs near The oases grow , and trees. In the desert, the flora is very sparse and consists of and thorn bushes. The indigenous fauna had come close to extinction because of intensive hunting, which has led to a conservation program on Island initiated by Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan in the 1970s, resulting in the survival of, for example, , and. Climate The climate of the UAE is subtropical-arid with hot summers and warm winters. The hottest months are July and August, when average maximum temperatures reach above 45 °C 113 °F on the. In the , temperatures are considerably lower, a result of increased elevation. Average minimum temperatures in January and February are between 10 and 14 °C 50 and 57 °F. During the late summer months, a humid southeastern wind known as Sharqi i. The average annual rainfall in the coastal area is less than 120 mm 4. Rain in the coastal region falls in short, torrential bursts during the summer months, sometimes resulting in floods in ordinarily dry beds. The region is prone to occasional, violent , which can severely reduce visibility. On 28 December 2004, there was snow recorded in the UAE for the very first time, in the Jebel Jais mountain cluster in Ras al-Khaimah. A few years later, there were more sightings of snow and hail. The Jebel Jais mountain cluster has experienced snow only twice since records began. The United Arab Emirates is a federation of. It is governed by a made up of the seven emirs of , , , , , and. All responsibilities not granted to the national government are reserved to the emirates. A percentage of revenues from each emirate is allocated to the UAE's central budget. Although elected by the Supreme Council, the and are essentially hereditary; the Emir of Abu Dhabi holds the presidency, and the Emir of Dubai is prime minister. All prime ministers but one have served concurrently as vice president. Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan was the UAE's president from the nation's founding until his death on 2 November 2004. On the following day the Federal Supreme Council elected his son, , to the post. Abu Dhabi's crown prince, , is the. The UAE convened a half-elected in 2006. The FNC consists of 40 members drawn from all the emirates. Half are appointed by the rulers of the constituent emirates, and the other half are indirectly elected to serve two-year terms. However, the FNC is restricted to a largely role. The is the extension of the UAE Federal Government in its electronic form. On 10 February 2016, 22-year-old Oxford and NYU-Abu Dhabi graduate was named Minister of State for Youth Affairs, the youngest minister in the cabinet. The UAE ranks poorly in measuring and. The UAE also ranks poorly in the annual '. Foreign relations Minister of Foreign Affairs with U. Secretary of State , 2013 The UAE has extensive diplomatic and commercial relations with other countries. It plays a significant role in and the UN, and is one of the founding members of the GCC. The UAE was one of only three countries to recognise the as Afghanistan's legitimate government Pakistan and Saudi Arabia were the other two countries. The UAE maintained diplomatic relations with the Taliban until in 2001. Via the whistleblowing initiative , distributed hacked emails from the inbox of Yousef Al Otaiba, UAE's Ambassador to US, were covered by The New York Times, Huff Post and other major media. The leaks showed that the UAE supported a major effort to spread scepticism about Qatar in the United States. The New York Times further reported that UAE wanted to host a Taliban embassy and used massive sums to influence decisions of D. The UAE has long maintained close relations with Egypt and is Egypt's largest investor from the Arab world. Pakistan was the first country to formally recognize the UAE upon its formation and continues to be one of its major economic and trading partners; about 400,000 Pakistani expatriates are employed in the UAE. The UAE also spends more than any other country in the world and shape domestic debate, and it pays former high-level government officials who worked with it to carry out its agenda within the U. The largest expatriate presence in the UAE is. Following British withdrawal from the UAE in 1971 and the establishment of the UAE as a state, the UAE disputed rights to a number of islands in the Persian Gulf against Iran. The UAE went so far as to bring the matter to the United Nations, but the case was dismissed. The dispute has not significantly impacted relations because of the large Iranian community presence and strong economic ties. Controlled by the UAE-backed In its dispute with the United States and Israel, Iran has repeatedly threatened to close the strait at the mouth of the Persian Gulf, a vital oil-trade route. Therefore, in July 2012, the UAE began operating a key overland oil pipeline which bypasses the Strait of Hormuz in order to mitigate any consequences of an Iranian shut-off. Commercially, the UK and Germany are the UAE's largest export markets and bilateral relations have long been close as a large number of their nationals reside in the UAE. The two countries had always enjoyed friendly ties and trade between each other. Exports from the UAE to Japan include and natural gas and imports from Japan to UAE include and electric items. The United Arab Emirates has been accused of actively supporting the separatist in Yemen. The UAE, as part of the ongoing , landed troops on the island of. The commercial networks that sustain charcoal exports from and imports into the United Arab Emirates remain in place, thus benefitting the terrorist group Al-Shabaab financially. The United Nations Monitoring Group continues to receive reports of dhows with charcoal departing from Somalia and arriving in the United Arab Emirates and there are currently no effective barriers to prevent Al-Shabaab from reverting to systematically taxing the production and transport of charcoal in Somalia. However The UAE has been notable for its improved enforcement of the charcoal ban by importing countries, which had created an identifiable deterrent effect on charcoal exporters in Somalia as at May 2016. Tony Blair is a paid adviser to the and lobbies UK Ministers on behalf of the UAE government officials. In August 2018, published a report claiming that the United Arab Emirates rulers had been using an Israeli spyware to secretly tap the phone calls of Qatari emir, a Saudi Arabian prince, , prime minister of Lebanon and some journalists. The UAE authorities are yet to respond over the allegation. Military is an Emirati manufactured military 4x4 all-terrain APC. France and the United States have played the most strategically significant roles with defence cooperation agreements and military material provision. The UAE discussed with France the possibility of a purchase of 60 fighter aircraft in January 2013. The UAE helped the US launch its first air offensive against Islamic State targets in Syria. Although initially small in number, the UAE armed forces have grown significantly over the years and are presently equipped with some of the most modern weapon systems, purchased from a variety of outside countries, mainly France, the US and the UK the former protector of the UAE. Most officers are graduates of the United Kingdom's at , with others having attended the at , the , and , the military academy of France. France opened the Abu Dhabi Base in May 2009. In March 2011, the UAE agreed to join the enforcement of the by sending six and six. During the , the US had troops and equipment stationed in the UAE as well as other parts of the. In 2015, UAE participated in the Saudi Arabian-led against the and forces loyal to former President , who was deposed in the 2011 uprising. UAE has been secretly buying foreign weapons and American F-16 through offset payments which were channelled to DC thinktanks such as. On Friday 4 September 2015, at least 50 soldiers from the United Arab Emirates and Bahrain were killed in Area of central Yemen. The claimed responsibility for the attack which was conducted using a Soviet-era rocket known as. It was later found out that this rocket targeted a weapons cache and caused a large explosion leading to the death of Emirati and Bahraini troops. According to , between 2012 and 2016, the UAE was the 3rd largest importer of arms among countries in the world. In a controversial battle, the Emirati-trained Yemeni forces ousted AQAP, which held Mukalla for just over a year until April 2016. Political divisions Location of the Emirates The United Arab Emirates is divided into seven emirates. The Emirate of has a further 31. Abu Dhabi has an area of 67,340 square kilometres 26,000 square miles , which is 86. It has a coastline extending for more than 400 km 250 mi and is divided for administrative purposes into three major regions. The Emirate of Dubai extends along the Persian Gulf coast of the UAE for approximately 72 km 45 mi. Dubai has an area of 3,885 square kilometres 1,500 square miles , which is equivalent to 5% of the country's total area, excluding the islands. The Emirate of Sharjah extends along approximately 16 km 10 mi of the UAE's Persian Gulf coastline and for more than 80 km 50 mi into the interior. The northern emirates which include Fujairah, Ajman, Ras al-Khaimah, and all have a total area of 3,881 square kilometres 1,498 square miles. There are two areas under joint control. One is jointly controlled by Oman and Ajman, the other by Fujairah and Sharjah. There is an Omani surrounded by UAE territory, known as. It is located halfway between the peninsula and the rest of Oman in the Emirate of Sharjah. It covers approximately 75 square kilometres 29 square miles and the boundary was settled in 1969. The north-east corner of Madha is closest to the Khor Fakkan-Fujairah road, barely 10 metres 33 feet away. Within the Omani exclave of Madha, is a UAE exclave called , also belonging to the Emirate of Sharjah. It is about eight kilometres 5. It consists of about forty houses with its own clinic and. Flag Emirate Capital Population Area 2008 % km² mi² % 1,548,655 31. There are three main branches within the court structure: civil, criminal and Sharia law. The UAE's judicial system is derived from the and. The court system consists of civil courts and courts. UAE's criminal and civil courts apply elements of Sharia law, codified into its criminal code and family law. According to Sharia court rulings, flogging ranges from 80 to 200 lashes. Verbal abuse pertaining to a person's honour is illegal and punishable by 80 lashes. Between 2007 and 2014, many people in the UAE were sentenced to 100 lashes. More recently in 2015, two men were sentenced to 80 lashes for hitting and insulting a woman. In 2014, an expatriate in Abu Dhabi was sentenced to 10 years in prison and 80 lashes after alcohol consumption and raping a toddler. Alcohol consumption for Muslims is illegal and punishable by 80 lashes; many Muslims have been sentenced to 80 lashes for alcohol consumption. Sometimes 40 lashes are given. Illicit sex is sometimes penalized by 60 lashes. Sharia courts have penalized domestic workers with floggings. In October 2013, a Filipino housemaid was sentenced to 100 lashes for illegitimate pregnancy. Drunk-driving is strictly illegal and punishable by 80 lashes; many expatriates have been sentenced to 80 lashes for drunk-driving. In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public. Under UAE law, premarital sex is punishable by 100 lashes. In May 2014, an Asian housemaid was sentenced to death by stoning in Abu Dhabi. Other expatriates have been sentenced to death by stoning for committing adultery. Between 2009 and 2013, several people were sentenced to death by stoning. Abortion is illegal and punishable by a maximum penalty of 100 lashes and up to five years in prison. In recent years, several people have retracted their guilty plea in illicit sex cases after being sentenced to stoning or 100 lashes. The punishment for committing adultery is 100 lashes for unmarried people and stoning to death for married people. Sharia courts have exclusive jurisdiction over family law cases and also have jurisdiction over several criminal cases including adultery, premarital sex, robbery, alcohol consumption and related crimes. The Sharia-based regulates matters such as marriage, divorce and child custody. The Islamic personal status law is applied to Muslims and sometimes non-Muslims. Non-Muslim expatriates can be liable to Sharia rulings on marriage, divorce and child custody. UAE incorporates crimes of Sharia i. Article 1 and Article 66 of UAE's Penal Code requires hudud crimes to be punished with the death penalty; therefore, apostasy is punishable by death in the UAE. In several cases, the courts of the UAE have jailed women who have reported rape. In another recent case, an 18-year Emirati woman withdrew her complaint of gang rape by six men when the prosecution threatened her with a long jail term and flogging. The woman still had to serve one year in jail. Emirati women must receive permission from a male guardian to marry and remarry. This requirement is derived from the UAE's interpretation of Sharia, and has been federal law since 2005. In all emirates, it is illegal for Muslim women to marry non-Muslims. Kissing in public is illegal and can result in. Expats in Dubai have been deported for kissing in public. In Abu Dhabi, people have been sentenced to 80 lashes for kissing in public. In July 2015, an Australian expatriate was deported for swearing on Facebook. Article 80 of the Abu Dhabi Penal Code makes sodomy punishable with imprisonment of up to 14 years, while article 177 of the Penal Code of Dubai imposes imprisonment of up to 10 years on consensual sodomy. Hence, both are enforceable simultaneously. During the month of , it is illegal to publicly eat, drink, or smoke between sunrise and sunset. Exceptions are made for pregnant women and children. The law applies to both Muslims and non-Muslims, and failure to comply may result in arrest. Dancing in public is illegal in the UAE. Human rights Main article: and are legal punishments in the UAE. The requirement is derived from , and has been federal law since 2005. Some domestic workers in the UAE are victims of the country's interpretations of Sharia judicial punishments such as flogging and stoning. Protest against the , March 2018 The UAE has escaped the ; however, more than 100 Emirati activists were jailed and because they sought reforms. Since 2011, the UAE government has increasingly carried out. Many foreign nationals and Emirati citizens have been arrested and abducted by the state. The UAE government denies these people are being held to conceal their whereabouts , placing these people outside the protection of the law. According to Human Rights Watch, the reports of forced disappearance and torture in the UAE are of grave concern. The report included 16 different methods of torture including severe beatings, threats with and denying access to medical care. In 2013, 94 Emirati activists were held in secret detention centres and put on trial for allegedly attempting to overthrow the government. Human rights organizations have spoken out against the secrecy of the trial. An Emirati, whose father is among the defendants, was arrested for tweeting about the trial. In April 2013, he was sentenced to 10 months in jail. The latest forced disappearance involves. Foreign nationals were also subjected to a campaign of deportations. There are many documented cases of Egyptians and other foreign nationals who had spent years working in the UAE and were then given only a few days to leave the country. Foreign nationals subjected to forced disappearance include two and two Qataris. Amnesty reported that the Qatari men have been abducted by the UAE government and the UAE government has withheld information about the men's fate from their families. Amongst the foreign nationals detained, imprisoned and expelled is , a popular blogger and Twitter personality. He was arrested by UAE authorities, detained, imprisoned and then expelled from the country. Despite his lifetime residence in the UAE, as a Palestinian citizen, El-Baghdadi had no recourse to contest this order. He could not be deported back to the , therefore he was deported to Malaysia. In 2007, the UAE government attempted to cover up information on the rape of a French teenage boy by three Emirati locals, one of whose HIV-positive status was hidden by Emirati authorities. Diplomatic pressure led to the arrest and conviction of the Emirati rapists. In April 2009, a video tape of smuggled out of the UAE showed Sheikh torturing a man Mohammed Shah Poor with whips, electric cattle prods, wooden planks with protruding nails and running him over repeatedly with a car. In December 2009, Issa appeared in court and proclaimed his innocence. The trial ended on 10 January 2010, when Issa was cleared of the torture of Mohammed Shah Poor. In recent years, a large number of expatriates have been deported from the UAE. Lebanese Shia families in particular have been deported for their alleged sympathy for. According to some organizations, more than 4,000 Shia expatriates have been deported from the UAE in recent years. The issue of among female is another area of concern, particularly given that domestic servants are not covered by the UAE labour law of 1980 or the draft labour law of 2007. Worker protests have been suppressed and protesters imprisoned without due process. In its 2013 Annual Report, drew attention to the United Arab Emirates' poor record on a number of human rights issues. They highlighted the government's restrictive approach to freedom of speech and assembly, their use of arbitrary arrest and torture, and UAE's use of the death penalty. In 2012, Dubai police subjected three British citizens to and after arresting them on drugs charges. The three men were pardoned and released in July 2013. In a report released on 12 July 2018, urged for 'war crimes' probe on UAE-run prisons in Yemen. Migrant workers are excluded from the UAE's collective labour rights, hence migrants are vulnerable to forced labour. Migrant workers in the UAE are not allowed to join trade unions. Moreover, migrant workers are banned from going on strike. Dozens of workers were deported in 2014 for going on strike. As migrant workers do not have the right to join a trade union or go on strike, they don't have the means to denounce the exploitation they suffer. Those who protest risk prison and deportation. The has called on the United Nations to investigate evidence that thousands of migrant workers in the UAE are treated as slave labour. In 2013, police arrested a US citizen and some UAE citizens, in connection with a YouTube parody video which allegedly portrayed Dubai and its residents in a bad light. The video was shot in areas of , Dubai, and featured gangs learning how to fight using simple weapons, including shoes, the aghal, etc. In 2015, nationals from different countries were put in jail for offences. An Australian woman was accused of 'writing bad words on social media', after she had posted a picture of a vehicle parked illegally. She was later deported from the UAE. Construction workers on top floor of the The State Security Apparatus in the UAE has been accused of a series of atrocities and human rights abuses including enforced disappearance, arbitrary arrests and torture, the latest being the forced disappearance of Turkish businessman Dr Amer Al Shawa on 2 October 2014. Freedom of association is also severely curtailed. All associations and NGOs have to register through the Ministry of Social Affairs and are therefore under de facto State control. About twenty non-political groups operate on the territory without registration. All associations have to be submitted to censorship guidelines and all publications have first to be approved by the government. It generated a significant following in the Middle East Blogosphere until the UAE's Telecoms Regulatory Authority TRA in the UAE blocked the website. Dress code The UAE has a modest dress code. The dress code is part of Dubai's criminal law. Most malls in the UAE have a dress code displayed at entrances. At Dubai's malls, females should cover their shoulders and knees; therefore women are not permitted to wear sleeveless tops. But people can wear swimwear at the pools and beaches. People are also requested to wear modest clothing when entering mosques, such as the in Abu Dhabi. The UAE ranks poorly in the annual by. The UAE is home to some pan-Arab broadcasters, including the and. In 2007, Sheikh decreed that journalists can no longer be prosecuted or imprisoned for reasons relating to their work. Criticism of the government is not allowed. Criticism of government officials and royal family members is not allowed. There have been many politically motivated press freedom violations; for example in 2012 a user was arrested in Dubai for filming and uploading a video of a UAE local who happened to be a Government official hitting an overseas worker. Since independence in 1971, UAE's economy has grown by nearly 231 times to 1. The non-oil trade has grown to 1. UAE is ranked as the 26th best nation in the world for doing business based on its economy and regulatory environment, ranked by the published by the. Although UAE has the most diversified economy in the GCC, the UAE's economy remains extremely reliant on oil. With the exception of Dubai, most of the UAE is dependent on oil revenues. Petroleum and natural gas continue to play a central role in the economy, especially in. More than 85% of the UAE's economy was based on the oil exports in 2009. While Abu Dhabi and other UAE emirates have remained relatively conservative in their approach to diversification, Dubai, which has far smaller oil reserves, was bolder in its diversification policy. In 2011, oil exports accounted for 77% of the UAE's state budget. Dubai suffered from a significant economic crisis in 2007—2010 and was bailed out by Abu Dhabi's oil wealth. Dubai is running a balanced budget, reflecting economic growth. Tourism acts as a growth sector for the entire UAE economy. Dubai is the top tourism destination in the Middle East. According to the annual MasterCard Global Destination Cities Index, Dubai is the fifth most popular tourism destination in the world. Dubai holds up to 66% share of the UAE's tourism economy, with Abu Dhabi having 16% and Sharjah 10%. Dubai welcomed 10 million tourists in 2013. The UAE has the most advanced and developed infrastructure in the region. Since the 1980s, the UAE has been spending billions of dollars on infrastructure. These developments are particularly evident in the larger emirates of Abu Dhabi and Dubai. The northern emirates are rapidly following suit, providing major incentives for developers of residential and commercial property. Property prices in Dubai fell dramatically when , the government construction company, sought to delay a debt payment. The right to and the are not recognised, and the has the power to force workers to go back to work. Migrant workers who participate in a strike can have their work permits cancelled and be deported. Consequently, there are very few anti-discrimination laws in relation to labour issues, with Emiratis — other Arabs — getting preference in public sector jobs despite lesser credentials than competitors and lower motivation. In fact, just over eighty percent of Emirati workers hold government posts, with many of the rest taking part in state-owned enterprises such as and. Main article: was the in 2014, overtaking London Heathrow. A 1,200 km 750 mi is under construction which will connect all the major cities and ports. The Dubai Metro is the first urban train network in the Arabian Peninsula. The major ports of the United Arab Emirates are , , Port , , Port Khalid, , and Port Khor Fakkan. Etisalat operated a monopoly until du launched mobile services in February 2007. Internet subscribers were expected to increase from 0. The regulator, the Telecommunications Regulatory Authority, mandates filtering websites for religious, political and sexual content. Expo 2020 Main article: UAE launched a successful bid for Expo 2020 with Dubai. The win is unprecedented in the region. World Expos can be a catalyst for economic, cultural and social transformation and generates legacies for the host city and nation. A traditional in , Dubai Emirati culture is based on and has been influenced by the cultures of Persia, India, and East Africa. Arabian and is part of the expression of the local Emirati identity. Persian influence on Emirati culture is noticeably visible in traditional Emirati architecture and. For example, the distinctive wind tower which tops traditional Emirati buildings, the has become an identifying mark of Emirati architecture and is attributed to Persian influence. This influence is derived both from traders who fled the tax regime in Persia in the early 19th Century and from Emirati ownership of ports on the Persian coast, for instance the Al Qassimi port of Lingeh. A Harbiya band performs in an Emirati wedding. Harbiya is a cultural dance derived from Arab tribes sword battles. The United Arab Emirates has a diverse society. Major holidays in the United Arab Emirates include , which marks the end of , and 2 December , which marks the formation of the United Arab Emirates. Emirati males prefer to wear a , an ankle-length white tunic woven from wool or cotton, and Emirati women wear an , a black over-garment that covers most parts of the body. Ancient Emirati poetry was strongly influenced by the 8th-century Arab scholar Al Khalil bin Ahmed. The earliest known poet in the UAE is , born between 1432 and 1437 in Ras Al-Khaimah. The most famous Emirati writers were Mubarak Al Oqaili 1880—1954 , Salem bin Ali al Owais 1887—1959 and Ahmed bin Sulayem 1905—1976. Three other poets from Sharjah, known as the Hirah group, are observed to have been heavily influenced by the Apollo and. The is the oldest and largest in the country. The includes some of regional repute, most famously with its Heritage District containing 17 museums, which in 1998 was the Cultural Capital of the Arab World. In Dubai, the area of has attracted a number of art galleries as well as museums such as the. Abu Dhabi has established a culture district on. Six grand projects are planned, including the and the. Dubai also plans to build a museum and a district for galleries and artists. Emirati culture is a part of the. The is also another major festival consisting of heavy metal and rock artists. The is minimal but expanding. Cuisine with ; a traditional Emirati sweet. The traditional food of the Emirates has always been rice, fish, and meat. The people of the United Arab Emirates have adopted most of their foods from other West and South Asian countries including Iran, Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, India and Oman. Seafood has been the mainstay of the Emirati diet for centuries. Meat and rice are other staple foods; are the more favored meats, than goat and beef. Popular beverages are coffee and tea, which can be complemented with , , or to give them a distinct flavor. Fast food has become very popular among young people, to the extent that campaigns are underway to highlight the dangers of fast food excesses. Alcohol is allowed to be served only in hotel restaurants and bars. All nightclubs are permitted to sell alcohol. Specific supermarkets may sell alcohol, but these products are sold in separate sections. Note that although alcohol may be consumed, it is illegal to be intoxicated in public or drive a motor vehicle with any trace of alcohol in the blood. The race is held at evening time, and is the first ever Grand Prix to start in daylight and finish at night. Other popular sports include , , , and tennis. The emirate of Dubai is also home to two major golf courses: The Dubai Golf Club and. In the past, child camel jockeys were used, leading to widespread criticism. Eventually the UAE passed laws banning the use of children for the sport, leading to the prompt removal of almost all child jockeys. Recently the robotic jockeys were introduce to over come this problem of child camel jockeys which was an issue of human right violations. Football in is a popular sport in the UAE. The was established in 1971 and since then has dedicated its time and effort to promoting the game, organizing and improving the abilities of not only its players, but also the officials and coaches involved with its regional teams. The qualified for the in with. It was the third consecutive World Cup with two Arab nations qualifying, after and in , and and Algeria again in. The UAE won the two times: the first cup in January 2007 held in and the second in January 2013, held in Bahrain. The country is scheduled to host the. Cricket is one of the most popular sports in the UAE, largely because of the expatriate population from the countries, the United Kingdom, and Australia. The in Sharjah has hosted four international so far. Dubai has two cricket stadiums Dubai No. Dubai is also home to the. The qualified for the and narrowly missed out on qualification for the. They qualified for the 2015 Cricket World Cup held in Australia and New Zealand. The next edition of the Cricket tournament is likely to be held in UAE in September 2018. The through secondary level is monitored by the Ministry of Education in all emirates except Abu Dhabi, where it falls under the authority of the. It consists of primary schools, and high schools. The public schools are government-funded and the curriculum is created to match the United Arab Emirates' development goals. The medium of instruction in the public school is Arabic with emphasis on English as a second language. There are also many private schools which are internationally accredited. The higher education system is monitored by the Ministry of Higher Education. The ministry also is responsible for admitting students to its institutions. The adult literacy rate in 2011 was 90%. The UAE has shown a strong interest in improving education and research. Enterprises include the establishment of the Research Centers and the and Institute for Enterprise Development. According to the QS Rankings, the top-ranking universities in the country are the 421—430th worldwide , 441—450th worldwide , the 431—440th and 551—600th worldwide. Main article: Year Pop. In 2010, the UAE's population was estimated to be 8,264,070, of whom only 11. The country's stands at 21. Under Article 8 of UAE Federal Law no. Expatriates and immigrants account for 88. The United Arab Emirates' population is ethnically diverse. According to the CIA, in 2015, 40% of residents were ; 10. In 2009, citizens accounted for 16. Indian and Pakistani expatriates make up more than a third 23% of the population of three emirates — Dubai, Sharjah, and Ajman according to the latest 2014 statistics provided by Euromonitor International, a market intelligence company. The five most populous nationalities in the three emirates, are: Indian 11% , Pakistani 10% , Emirati 40% , Bangladeshi 7% , and Filipino 6%. There is a growing presence of Europeans especially in multicultural cities such as Dubai. Western expatriates, from Europe, Australia, Northern America and Latin America make up 500,000 of the UAE population. More than 100,000 British nationals live in the country. The rest of the population were from other. About 88% of the population of the United Arab Emirates is urban. The average was 76. Religion 1% is the largest and the official of the UAE. The government follows a policy of tolerance toward other religions and rarely interferes in the activities of non-Muslims. By the same token, non-Muslims are expected to avoid interfering in Islamic religious matters or the Islamic upbringing of Muslims. The government imposes restrictions on spreading other religions through any form of media as it is considered a form of proselytizing. There are approximately 31 churches throughout the country, one Hindu temple in the region of , one Sikh Gurudwara in Jebel Ali and also a Buddhist temple in Al Garhoud. Based on the Ministry of Economy census in 2005, 76% of the total population was , 13% Christian, and 11% other mainly. Among Emirati Muslim citizens, 97% are , while 3% are , mostly concentrated in the emirates of Sharjah and. Omani immigrants are mostly , while influences exist too. Largest cities Largest cities or towns in the United Arab Emirates 2008 Calculation some figures up to 2017 1 3,004,589 2 1,807,000 3 1,278,550 4 766,936 5 504,847 6 334,000 7 345,000 8 192,190 9 78,200 10 72,936 Languages is the national language of the United Arab Emirates. The of Arabic is spoken natively by the Emirati people. As such, a knowledge of the language is a requirement when applying for most local jobs. Other world languages are represented by expatriate population drawn from a wide mix of nationalities. The life expectancy at birth in the UAE is at 76. According to , 37. In February 2008, the Ministry of Health unveiled a five-year health strategy for the public health sector in the northern emirates, which fall under its purview and which, unlike Abu Dhabi and Dubai, do not have separate healthcare authorities. The strategy focuses on unifying healthcare policy and improving access to healthcare services at reasonable cost, at the same time reducing dependence on overseas treatment. The ministry plans to add three hospitals to the current 14, and 29 primary healthcare centres to the current 86. Nine were scheduled to open in 2008. The introduction of mandatory in Abu Dhabi for and their dependants was a major driver in reform of healthcare policy. Abu Dhabi nationals were brought under the scheme from 1 June 2008 and Dubai followed for its government employees. 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Retrieved 26 November 2015. For further information, please see below. It is code-forward and brand responsible and has speakers from partners and competitors. The world has no limits, so why should you. More than 85% of the UAE's economy was based on the oil exports in 2009. Developers congregating to share code, insights and skills. INSEADWomen insead Thank you to all the elements who contributed to the 50 Years, 50 Women, 50 Ideas series.