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14 January 2019

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How to get from Frankfurt Airport (FRA) to Bochum by train, bus, night bus, car or plane

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Bärbel Kofler MdB, German Representative for Human Rights Policy and Humanitarian Action and Michael Brand MdB, Chair of the German Parliamentary Committee for Human Rights and Humanitarian Action. They also shared insights on academic writing, from the early stages of an article or doctoral thesis to the final stretch. Parts of the castle were built during the Renaissance and baroque periods. Address: Am Bergbaumuseum 28, Tel.

How to get from Frankfurt Airport (FRA) to Bochum by train, bus, night bus, car or plane - Cooked fresh on a hot plate plenty of choice for all. The Emscher's tributaries are Hüller Bach with Dorneburger Mühlenbach, Hofsteder Bach, Marbach, Ahbach, Kabeisemannsbach and Goldhammer Bach.

For other uses, see. Bochum German pronunciation: ; : Baukem is the sixth largest city of the most populous federal state of after , , , and , and its 364,920 2016 inhabitants make it the of Germany. On the Ruhr Heights Ruhrhöhen , between the rivers to the south and to the north tributaries of the , it is the second largest city of after Dortmund, and the fourth largest city of the after Dortmund, Essen and Duisburg. It lies at the centre of the Ruhr, Germany's largest urban area, in the , and belongs to the. It is surrounded by the cities of in clockwise direction , , , , , and. Bochum is the sixth largest and one of the southernmost cities in the dialect area. There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Ruhr-Universität Bochum , one of the ten largest universities in Germany, and Bochum University of Applied Sciences Hochschule Bochum. Bochum Geographical position The city lies on the low rolling hills of Bochum land ridge Bochumer Landrücken , part of the Ruhrhöhen highest elevations between the and rivers at the border of the southern and northern Ruhr coal region. The highest point of the city is at Kemnader Straße Kemnader Street in at 196 metres 643 ft above sea level; the lowest point is 43 metres 141 ft at the Blumenkamp in. The terrain of Bochum is characterised by rolling hills that rarely have more than three per cent graduation. Steeper graduation can be found at the Harpener Hellweg near the Berghofer Holz nature reserve 3. The city extends north to south 13. The perimeter of the city limits is 67. Geology There is of and. The geological strata can be visited in the former quarry of Klosterbusch and at the Geological Gardens. Waterways The urban area is divided into the river catchment in the south and the catchment in the north. The Ruhr's tributaries are the Oelbach where as well a waste water treatment plant is established , Gerther Mühlenbach, Harpener Bach, Langendreer Bach, , and the. The Ruhr in combination with upstream reservoirs is also used for drinking water abstraction. The Emscher's tributaries are Hüller Bach with Dorneburger Mühlenbach, Hofsteder Bach, Marbach, Ahbach, Kabeisemannsbach and Goldhammer Bach. The industrial developments in the region since the 19th century were leading to a kind of division of labour between the two river catchments, pumping drinking water from the Ruhr into the municipal supply system and discharging waste water mainly into the Emscher system. Today approximately 10% of the waste water in the Emscher catchment is discharged via the Hüller Bach. The ecological restoration of the Emscher tributaries initiated by the Emschergenossenschaft started with the in 1989. Vegetation The south of the city has woods, the best known of which are the. These are generally of and. The occurrence of gives evidence of Bochum's. Districts Sections and Districts in Bochum Bochum is divided into six administrative districts with a total of 362,213 inhabitants living in an urban area of 145. There are 74,602 inhabitants living in an area of 23. There are 37,004 inhabitants living in an area of 18. There are 55,193 inhabitants living in an area of 23. There are 50,866 inhabitants living in an area of 27. There are 56,510 inhabitants living in an area of 19. Stamp cancelled at BOCHUM 1 in 1889. Bochum post-office was in the Westphalia province of before 1868 Largest groups of foreign residents Nationality Population 2017 8,925 7,318 3,766 2,032 1,873 1,555 1,273 1,241 1,036 1,112 995 934 911 842 807 712 684 674 Bochum dates from the 9th century, when set up a royal court at the junction of two important trade routes. It was first officially mentioned in 1041 as Cofbuokheim in a document of the archbishops of Cologne. In 1321, Count granted Bochum a town charter, but the town remained insignificant until the 19th century, when the mining and industries emerged in the Ruhr area, leading to the growth of the entire region. The population of Bochum increased from about 4,500 in 1850 to 100,000 in 1904. Bochum acquired city status, incorporating neighbouring towns and villages. Additional population gains came from immigration, primarily from. After the war, the new state of North Rhine-Westphalia was established, consisting of the Rhineland and Westphalia. Bochum is located in that state. In the postwar period, Bochum began developing as a cultural centre of the Ruhr area. In 1965, the was opened, the first modern in the Ruhr area and the first to be founded in Germany since. Since the seventies, Bochum's industry has moved from heavy industry to the service sector. Between 1960 and 1980, the coal mines all closed. Other industries, such as , compensated for the loss of jobs. The is assembled at the Opel Bochum ; however, by 2009, the factory was in serious financial difficulties and in December 2012, Opel announced that Opel will stop vehicle production Bochum plant in 2016. In the course of a comprehensive community reform in 1975, , a formerly independent city, was integrated into the city of Bochum. A local referendum against the integration failed. In 2007, the new synagogue of the Jewish community of Bochum, Herne und Hattingen was opened. In 2008, closed down its production plant, causing the loss of thousands of jobs, both at the plant and at local suppliers. Within months, the Canadian high-tech company, , announced plans to open a research facility, its first outside Canada, adding several hundred jobs. Marien Church, 1943 On 9 November 1938, , the Jewish citizens of Bochum were attacked. The was set on fire and there was rioting against Jewish citizens. The first Jews from Bochum were deported to and many Jewish institutions and homes were destroyed. Some 500 Jewish citizens are known by name to have been killed in the , including 19 who were younger than 16 years old. Joseph Klirsfeld was Bochum's rabbi at this time. He and his wife fled to Palestine. In December 1938, the Jewish elementary school teacher began organising groups of children and adolescents to be sent to the and , sending ten groups in all. Many Jewish children and those from other persecuted groups were taken in by Dutch families and thereby saved from abduction or deportation and death. Because the Ruhr region was an area of high residential density and a centre for the manufacture of weapons, it was a major target in the war. Women with young children, school children and the homeless fled or were evacuated to safer areas, leaving cities largely deserted to the arms industry, coal mines and steel plants and those unable to leave. Bochum was first bombed heavily in May and June 1943. On 13 May 1943, the city hall was hit, destroying the top floor, and leaving the next two floors in flames. On 4 November 1944, in an attack involving 700 British bombers, the steel plant, Bochumer Verein, was hit. One of the largest steel plants in Germany, more than 10,000 high-explosive and 130,000 incendiary bombs were stored there, setting off a conflagration that destroyed the surrounding neighbourhoods. An aerial photo shows the devastation. The town centre of Bochum was a during the. In 150 air raids on Bochum, over 1,300 bombs were dropped on Bochum and. By the end of the war, 38% of Bochum had been destroyed. Of Bochum's more than 90,000 homes, only 25,000 remained for the 170,000 citizens who survived the war, many by fleeing to other areas. Most of the remaining buildings were damaged, many with only one usable room. Only 1,000 houses in Bochum remained undamaged after the war. Only two of 122 schools remained unscathed; others were totally destroyed. Encountering desultory resistance, the US captured the city on 10 April 1945. After the war, Bochum was occupied by the , who established two to house people. The majority of them were former Polish Zwangsarbeiter, , many of them from the Bochumer Verein. Allied bombing destroyed 83% of the built up area of Bochum during World War II. More than sixty years after the war, bombs continue to be found in the region, usually by construction workers. One found in October 2008 in Bochum town centre led to the evacuation of 400 and involved hundreds of emergency workers. A month earlier, a buried bomb exploded in neighbouring , injuring 17 people. There were statues of bronze and stone, and in the city council chambers, a bell tower. The ornate décor gave the Nazis an excuse to hound the then-mayor, who was of Jewish descent, driving him to suicide in 1933. Most of the bronze statues were melted down for the war effort and the stone carvings were damaged by the war, save for some small lion's heads over the entrance. In 1951, a set of 28 chimes was installed, manufactured in Bochum. Known for their clarity of tone, they are the first cast steel chimes in the world. Displayed at the 1867 Paris World's Fair, it has a diameter of 3. It was damaged during World War II and can no longer be rung. Originally a private home, it became a brewery in 1777. After nearly being torn down after the war, it now has preservation status and today houses a restaurant, where they still brew their own beer. Alsberg, AG of Cologne. During the Nazi era, these stores were taken away from their Jewish owners and put into non-Jewish hands. Contracted by the Lueg Company, the seven-story building was designed by the architect Emil Pohle. It suffered a fire during a bombing raid in 1944 and was renovated after the war. Today, the upper floors are small offices and internet companies. The seven-theatre Bochum Union Cinema rents the ground floor, showing a variety of domestic and international films. Damaged in World War II, its façade is protected by preservation status. It houses a restaurant and its windows are decorated with displays of old Bochum. It opened in 1928 and was emblematic of the modern era. It was heavily damaged during the war, but was afterwards restored to its former appearance. With the closing of the mill, the plant was renovated and turned into a three-hall concert and event site with an industrial ambiance. Built in the early 1900s by the family for their coal mine workers, the modest and tastefully designed two-family houses were to enable self-sufficiency by providing gardens and a stall for a cow. The estate, which has the appearance of a small, rural town, gained preservation status in the 1970s. Though located in , it is owned by Bochum and has a significant history. On 8 June 1321, Count granted Bochum its town charter there. Today, only the gate and one tower remain. Though located in the town of , the castle is property of the city of Bochum in 1921. Documents regarding its earliest dates of construction have been lost; it is first mentioned in 1393. Parts of the castle were built during the Renaissance and baroque periods. The castle's location on the banks of the Ruhr river was changed when the flood of 1486 receded on the opposite side, cutting the castle off from the neighbouring village. The castle remained in private hands till 1921, when it was deeded to the city of Bochum. In 1961, a museum of local history was installed, including a large collection of 16th to 20th century musical instruments. A collection of East Asian objects is also now located there, as well as a satellite of the Bochum Museum and an art exhibition space. There is also a restaurant on site. Behind the castle is a farmhouse from 1800, now a museum exhibiting farm life from the past. Peter und Paul is the oldest church in Bochum, built between 785—800 by. It was rebuilt in the 11th century, but was severely damaged by fire in 1517. In 1547, it was again rebuilt, this time in the late Gothic style. The 68-metre 223 ft high bell tower is one of the landmarks of Bochum. The interior includes a baptismal font from 1175, the reliquary shrine of St. After the , both Catholics and Lutherans shared the Propsteikirche, often contentiously. In 1655, the Lutherans began to build their own church with the help of donations from the , , and. The church was heavily damaged in a bombing raid on 12 June 1943 and was later rebuilt after the war. Next to the church is a monument to peace. A statue of an old woman searching for a loved one, it is also a memorial to the 4 November 1944 bombing raid on Bochum. In 1931, the room in the steeple was extended to a for those killed in World War I. During an air raid in 1943, the church was destroyed, except for the steeple. After the war, the ruins were integrated into a new, modern structure and the steeple became a memorial dedicated to peace and understanding among nations. It is now closed and scheduled for demolition. The stained glass windows have been removed and it has fallen victim to vandalism. A small church consisting of one room was built by Countess Imma von. Between 1130 and 1170, the old church was replaced by a Romanesque basilica. Today, the steeple and transept remain. Between 1150 and 1200, the interior walls and ceiling were decorated with a number of Romanesque paintings. The façade shows overall a variation on the Solomon's Seal achieved by relocated brickstones. The interior is graced with a gold-coloured canopy. Parks and gardens Chinese garden at the Bochum has a municipal zoo, a large municipal park and a number of other gardens and parks. The has thousands of plants from all over the world. Among others there is a tropical garden, a cactus garden, and a designed in the southern Chinese style, the only one of its kind in Germany. The Geological Garden was the first of its kind in Germany. The nearly 4-acre 16,000 m 2 park is the site of an old coal mine, the Zeche Friederika, which operated from 1750 to 1907. In 1962, the property came under environmental protection and a decade later was turned into a geological garden. Other scenic areas include the West Park, Lake Kemnade, Lake Ümmingen and the municipal forest, Weitmarer Holz. Leisure and entertainment Bochum is a cultural centre of the Ruhr region. There is a municipal theatre, the , and about 20 smaller theatres and stages. The musical , which opened in 1988, is the longest-running musical in Germany. Bermudadreieck The Bermuda Triangle , in the city center of Bochum, functions as the town's nightlife hub. Around sixty different bars and restaurants are located there, serving multicultural cuisine such as Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Italian, Spanish and German gastronomic specialties. Close to the Bermudadreieck opened in 2016 the new venue for classical music the. There is a steam-powered winding engine, which is operated at events. It gives children the opportunity to experience the processes in a mine. Marble and bronze portraits of Greek and Roman emperors, collection of antique Greek vases from the 9th to 4th century, B. Indoor permanent exhibition with works by Gianni Colombo, , Gotthard Graupner, , , , Maria Nordman, , , Dirk Reinartz, , , , Jan J. Schoonhoven; also the Africa and Asia Room. It consists of four 12-metre over 39 feet tall steel plates. It is currently in storage because of construction. The bell was built in 1867 for the Paris World's Fair. There are 38 stolpersteine in Bochum. The sculpture was created by Wilhelm Wulff. Strict guidelines for artwork were in effect during the Nazi dictatorship, yet the sculpture follows only a few of them. The inscription also avoids typical Nazi phraseology. Since 2010 it has played in the second Division. In addition, Bochum has a ring road, built to expressway standards, consisting of four segments; the Donezk, Oviedo, Nordhausen and Sheffield-Ring roads. It serves as a three-quarter loop around central Bochum and begins and ends at Autobahn A40. Until 2012, a new interchange Dreieck Bochum-West between the Donezk-Ring and Autobahn A40 is being constructed within tight parameters due to the existence of a nearby factory. Apart from the autobahns and expressways, there is also a small ring road around the centre of Bochum, where most roads radiating out of Bochum begin. Most main roads in Bochum are multi-lane roads with traffic lights. Bochum is also served by the and. B51 runs to Herne and Hattingen, and B226 runs to Gelsenkirchen and Witten. Railways Bochum has a situated on the , connecting the city to the long-distance network of as well as to the network. Bus, tram, underground Local service is supplied mainly by , a joint venture handling transportation between the cities of Bochum and Gelsenkirchen. The is a single underground line connecting the University of Bochum to , and the is made up of several lines, partially underground, connecting to Gelsenkirchen, Hattingen and. Public transport in the city is priced according to the fare system of the transport association. Waterways As one of the few cities, Bochum is not directly connected with the German waterway net; the closest link is in the more northern located at the. In the south the border of Bochum is marked by the. Up to the first half of the 19th century it was one of the most-travelled rivers in and was mainly used for coal departure. Despite of tour ships, the navigation time ended long ago. Air The closest airports are 27 km , 31 km and 47 km. To reach the airport in , there are , , RE and S railway lines. Other reachable airports are the , the , the and the. New York Times 25 May 2009. Wider das Vergessen — Widerstand und Verfolgung Bochumer Frauen und Zwangsarbeiterinnen 1933—1945 pp. Official web site, Bochumer Verein. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939—1946 Revised Edition, 2006 , Stackpole Books, p. Der Ort des Terrors: Geschichte der nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslager, Band 3 Site of Terror: The History of Nazi Concentration Camps, Volume 3 p. The Business History Review, Vol. Accessed 2 March 2010. Alphabetical list of plants, with photos. Accessed 8 March 2010. Beautiful and relaxing spots. Retrieved 16 January 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2010 in German.
There are nine institutions of higher education in the city, most notably the Ruhr-Universität Bochumone of the ten largest universities in Germany, and Bochum University of Applied Sciences Hochschule Bochum. Simon Buczacki, who participated in the new study investigating the effect of itraconazole on dormant colorectal cancer cells. A month earlier, a buried bomb exploded in neighbouringinjuring 17 people. Information boards advise of the landmarks around. Vegetation The south of the city has woods, the best known of which are the. Insbesondere werden Inhalte Dritter als solche gekennzeichnet.

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