14 January 2019
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Me planla no nedtak av spinnakeren. The Basque History of the World. Det var me ikkje heilt fornøyd med, men me var i ein tøff klasse.
One day a Marlin swordfish so big i got scared bit the hook. The farm was not on good land and failed when potato prices fell. The kite-surfing here is very good and we spend most of two weeks on the beach doing that.
- The family in Idaho in 1921, visiting the grave of George's younger brother Lawrence, who died that year of rheumatic fever. Romney would later consider wooing her his greatest sales achievement.
For other people with the same name, see. George Wilcken Romney July 8, 1907 — July 26, 1995 was an American businessman and politician. He was chairman and president of from 1954 to 1962, the from 1963 to 1969, and the from 1969 to 1973. He was the father of 2003—07 and , husband of 1970 U. Senate candidate , and grandfather of 2017—present chair. Romney 3rd In office January 22, 1969 — January 20, 1973 President Preceded by Succeeded by 43rd In office January 1, 1963 — January 22, 1969 Lieutenant William Milliken Preceded by Succeeded by Personal details Born George Wilcken Romney 1907-07-08 July 8, 1907 , , Died July 26, 1995 1995-07-26 aged 88 , U. Political party Unaffiliated Before 1959 1959—1995 Spouse s m. The family lived in several states and ended up in , where they struggled during the. Romney worked in a number of jobs, served as a in the United Kingdom, and attended several colleges in the U. In 1939 he moved to and joined the , where he served as the chief spokesman for the automobile industry during and headed a cooperative arrangement in which companies could share production improvements. He joined in 1948, and became the chief executive of its successor, , in 1954. There he turned around the struggling firm by focusing all efforts on the compact car. Devoutly religious, he presided over the Detroit of. Having entered politics by participating in a state to rewrite the during 1961—1962, Romney was elected Governor of Michigan in 1962. Re-elected by increasingly large margins in 1964 and 1966, he worked to overhaul the state's financial and revenue structure, greatly expanding the size of state government and introducing Michigan's first. Romney was a strong supporter of the. He briefly represented moderate Republicans against conservative Republican during the. He requested the intervention of federal troops during the. Initially a front runner for the Republican nomination for President of the United States , he proved and fell behind in polls. After Nixon's election as president, he appointed Romney as Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Romney's ambitious plans for housing production increases for the poor, and for open housing to desegregate suburbs, were modestly successful but often thwarted by Nixon. Romney left the administration at the start of Nixon's second term in 1973. Returning to private life, he advocated volunteerism and public service, and headed the and its successor organizations from 1973 through 1991. He also served as a within his church. Romney's grandparents were Mormons who fled the United States with their children owing to the federal government's prosecution of polygamy. His maternal grandfather was 1846—1909 , who presided over the Mormon mission in before moving to the Mexican state of and who was the son of original Mormon apostle 1807—1857. In the 1920s, Romney's uncle 1878—1931 played a major role in the preservation and expansion of the Mormon presence in Mexico and in its introduction to South America. A more distant kinsman was 1734—1802 , a noted portrait painter in Britain during the last quarter of the 18th century. Romney's parents, 1871—1955 and Anna Amelia Pratt 1876—1926 , were United States citizens and natives of the. They married in 1895 in Mexico and lived in in in the state of Chihuahua one of the , where George was born on July 8, 1907. They practiced monogamy polygamy having been abolished by the , although it persisted in places, especially Mexico. George had three older brothers, two younger brothers, and a younger sister. Gaskell Romney was a successful carpenter, house builder, and farmer who headed the most prosperous family in the colony, which was situated in an agricultural valley below the. The family chose U. Young George heard the sound of distant gunfire and saw rebels walking through the village streets. The Romney family fled and returned to the United States in July 1912, leaving their home and almost all of their property behind. After a few months they moved to , where worked as a carpenter. The family in Idaho in 1921, visiting the grave of George's younger brother Lawrence, who died that year of rheumatic fever. George is standing, second from left. His mother Anna is sitting on the left while his father Gaskell is standing, second from right. In 1913, the family moved to , and bought a farm, where they grew and subsisted largely on. The farm was not on good land and failed when potato prices fell. The family moved to , in 1916, where resumed construction work, but the family remained generally poor. In 1917, they moved to , where became a successful home and commercial builder in a growing area due to high commodities prices. George started working in wheat and sugar beet fields at the age of eleven and was the valedictorian at his grammar school graduation in 1921 by the sixth grade he had attended six different schools. The brought a collapse in prices, and local building was abandoned. His family returned to Salt Lake City in 1921, and while his father resumed construction work, George became skilled at work. The family was again prospering when the hit in 1929 and ruined them. George watched his parents fail financially in Idaho and Utah and having to take a dozen years to pay off their debts. Seeing their struggles influenced his life and business career. In Salt Lake City, Romney worked while attending Roosevelt Junior High School and, beginning in 1922,. There he played on the football team, on the basketball team, and on the baseball team, all with more persistence than talent, but in an effort to uphold the family tradition of athleticism, he earned in all three sports. In his senior year, he and junior became high school sweethearts; she was from a more well-assimilated Mormon family. Academically, Romney was steady but undistinguished. He was also president of the and played on the basketball team that won the Utah—Idaho Junior College Tournament. After becoming an , Romney earned enough money working to fund himself as a. In October 1926, he sailed to Great Britain and was first assigned to preach in a slum in , Scotland. The abject poverty and hopelessness he saw there affected him greatly, but he was ineffective in gaining converts and temporarily suffered a crisis of faith. In February 1927, he was shifted to and in February 1928 to London, where he kept track of mission finances. Romney experienced British sights and culture and was introduced to members of the and the. In August 1928, Romney became president of the Scottish missionary district. Romney's frequent public proselytizing — from and in London from soap boxes at in and from a platform at — developed his gifts for debate and sales, which he would use the rest of his career. Three decades later, Romney said that his missionary time had meant more to him in developing his career than any other experience. Romney returned to the U. He followed LaFount to , in fall 1929, after her father, , had accepted an appointment by President to serve on the. He worked for Democratic during 1929 and 1930, first as a stenographer using , then, when his abilities at that proved limited, as a staff aide working on tariffs and other legislative matters. Romney researched aspects of the proposed and sat in on committee meetings; the job was a turning point in his career and gave him lifelong confidence in dealing with Congress. With one of his brothers, Romney opened a in nearby , during this time. The business soon failed, in the midst of the Great Depression. He also attended at night. Based upon a connection he made working for Walsh, Romney was hired as an apprentice for in in June 1930. When LaFount, an aspiring actress, began earning bit roles in Hollywood movies, Romney arranged to be transferred to Alcoa's Los Angeles office for training as a salesman. There he took night classes at the. Romney did not attend for long, or graduate from, any of the colleges in which he was enrolled, accumulating only 2½ years of credits; instead he has been described as an. She later said she had never had a choice of both marriage and an acting career, because the latter would have upstaged him, but expressed no regrets about having chosen the former. Romney would later consider wooing her his greatest sales achievement. The couple married on July 2, 1931, at. They would have four children: Margo Lynn born 1935 , Jane LaFount born 1938 , born 1941 , and born 1947. The couple's marriage reflected aspects of their personalities and courtship. George was devoted to Lenore, and tried to bring her a flower every day, often a single rose with a love note. George was also a strong, blunt personality used to winning arguments by force of will, but the more self-controlled Lenore was unintimidated and willing to push back against him. As a lobbyist, Romney frequently competed on behalf of the aluminum industry against the copper industry, and defended Alcoa against charges of being a monopoly. He also represented the Aluminum Wares Association. In the early 1930s, he helped get aluminum windows installed in the , at the time the largest office building in the world. He was chosen by Pyke Johnson, a Denver newspaperman and automotive industry trade representative he met at the Press Club, to join the newly formed Trade Association Advisory Committee to the. The committee's work continued even after the agency was declared unconstitutional in 1935. During 1937 and 1938, Romney was also president of the Washington Trade Association Executives. After nine years with Alcoa, Romney's career had stagnated; there were many layers of executives to climb through and a key promotion he had wanted was given to someone with more seniority. Pyke Johnson was vice president of the , which needed a manager for its new office. Romney got the job and moved there with his wife and two daughters in 1939. An association study found Americans using their cars more for short trips and convinced Romney that the trend was towards more functional, basic transportation. In 1942, he was promoted to general manager of the association, a position he held until 1948. Romney also served as president of the Detroit Trade Association in 1941. In 1940, as raged overseas, Romney helped start the Automotive Committee for Air Defense, which coordinated planning between the automobile and aircraft industries. Immediately following the December 1941 that drew the U. This organization established a cooperative arrangement in which companies could share machine tools and production improvements, thus maximizing the industry's contribution to the war production effort. With labor leader , Romney led the Detroit Victory Council, which sought to improve conditions for Detroit workers under wartime stress and deal with the causes of the. Romney successfully appealed to the to make housing available to black workers near the plant. He also served on the labor-management committee of the Detroit section of the. Romney became the chief spokesman of the automobile industry, often testifying before Congressional hearings about production, labor, and management issues; he was mentioned or quoted in over 80 stories in during this time. This included over 3 million motorized vehicles, 80 percent of all tanks and tank parts, 75 percent of all aircraft engines, half of all diesel engines, and a third of all machine guns. Between a fifth and a quarter of all U. As peacetime production began, Romney persuaded government officials to forgo complex contract-termination procedures, thus freeing auto plants to quickly produce cars for domestic consumption and avoid large layoffs. Romney was director of the American Trade Association Executives in 1944 and 1947, and managing director of the National Automobile Golden Jubilee Committee in 1946. From 1946 to 1949, he represented U. By 1950, Romney was a member of the Citizens Housing and Planning Council, and criticized in Detroit's housing program when speaking before the. As managing director of the Automobile Manufacturers Association, Romney became good friends with then-president. At an inefficient Detroit refrigerator plant of the Kelvinator appliance division, Romney battled the union to institute a new industrial—labor relations program that forestalled the whole facility being shut down. I've laid floors, I've done lathing. I've thinned beets and shocked wheat. Mason had long sought a merger of Nash-Kelvinator with one or more other companies, and on May 1, 1954, it merged with to become the AMC. It was the largest merger in the history of the industry, and Romney became an executive vice president of the new firm. In October 1954, Mason suddenly died of acute and. Romney was named AMC's president and chairman of the board the same month. When Romney took over, he reorganized upper management, brought in younger executives, and pruned and rebuilt AMC's. Together with chief engineer Meade Moore, by the end of 1957 Romney had completely phased out the and brands, whose sales had been lagging. The was selected for development and promotion, as AMC pursued an innovative strategy: manufacturing only. The company struggled badly at first, losing money in 1956, more in 1957, and experiencing defections from its dealer network. Romney instituted company-wide savings and efficiency measures, and he and other executives reduced their salaries by up to 35 percent. Though AMC was on the verge of being taken over by corporate raider in 1957, Romney was able to fend him off. Then sales of the Rambler finally took off, leading to unexpected financial success for AMC. It posted its first quarterly profit in three years in 1958, was the only car company to show increased sales during the , and moved from thirteenth to seventh place among worldwide auto manufacturers. In contrast with the Hudson's racing success in the early 1950s, the Ramblers were frequent winners in the coast-to-coast , an annual event on U. Sales remained strong during 1960 and 1961; the Rambler was America's third most popular car both years. Known for his fast-paced, shirt-sleeved management style that ignored organization charts and levels of responsibility, he often wrote the ad copy himself. The named Romney its Man of the Year in Industry for four consecutive years, 1958 through 1961. However, whenever he felt his salary and bonus was excessively high for a year, he gave the excess back to the company. After initial wariness, he developed a good relationship with leader , and AMC workers also benefited from a then-novel. Romney was one of only a few Michigan corporate chiefs to support passage and implementation of the state Fair Employment Practices Act. Religion was a paramount force in Romney's life. Except for my religion, I easily could have become excessively occupied with industry, social and recreational activities. Sharing personal responsibility for church work with my fellow members has been a vital counterbalance in my life. Romney and his wife , and from 1955 to 1965, gave 19 percent of their income to the church and another 4 percent to charity. Romney was a high priest in the , and beginning in 1944 he headed the Detroit which initially was small enough to meet in a member's house. By the time he was AMC chief, he presided over the , which included not only all of Metro Detroit, Ann Arbor, and the Toledo area of Ohio but also the western edge of Ontario along the Michigan border. In this role, Romney oversaw the religious work of some 2,700 church members, occasionally preached sermons, and supervised the construction of the first stake tabernacle east of the in 100 years. Because the stake covered part of Canada, he often interacted with Canadian Mission President. Romney's rise to a leadership role in the church reflected the church's journey from a fringe pioneer religion to one that was closely associated with mainstream American business and values. Romney and his family lived in affluent , having moved there from Detroit around 1953. He became deeply active in Michigan civic affairs. He was on the board of directors of the and the United Foundation of Detroit, and was chairman of the executive committee of the Detroit Round Table of Catholics, Jews, and Protestants. In 1959, he received the 's Americanism award. Starting in 1956, Romney headed a citizen-based committee for improved educational programs in Detroit's public schools. The 1958 final report of the Citizens Advisory Committee on School Needs was largely Romney's work and received considerable public attention; it made nearly 200 recommendations for economy and efficiency, better teacher pay, and new infrastructure funding. He organized Citizens for Michigan in 1959, a nonpartisan group that sought to study Detroit's problems and build an informed electorate. Citizens for Michigan built on Romney's belief that assorted interest groups held too much influence in government, and that only the cooperation of informed citizens acting for the benefit of all could counter them. Based on his fame and accomplishments in a state where automobile making was a central topic of conversation, Romney was seen as a natural to enter politics. He first became directly involved in politics in 1959, when he was a key force in the petition drive calling for a constitutional convention to rewrite the. Romney's sales skills made Citizens for Michigan one of the most effective organizations among those calling for the convention. Previously unaffiliated politically, Romney declared himself a member of the and gained election to the convention. By early 1960, many in Michigan's somewhat moribund Republican Party were touting Romney as a possible candidate for governor, U. Also in early 1960, Romney served on the , a group also having Jewish, Catholic, mainline and evangelical Protestant, and Orthodox Christian members. It issued a report whose guiding principles were that no candidate for elected office should be supported or opposed due to their religion and that no campaign for office should be seen as an opportunity to vote for one religion against another. This statement helped pave the way for 's famous speech on religion and public office later that year. Romney briefly considered a run in the , but instead became a vice president of the constitutional convention that revised the Michigan constitution during 1961 and 1962. Governor Romney meeting with German Secretary of State in December 1967 After a period of pained indecision and a 24-hour prayer fast, Romney stepped down from AMC in February 1962 to enter electoral politics given an indefinite leave of absence, he was succeeded as president of AMC by. Romney's position as the leader of the moderate Republicans at the constitutional convention helped gain him the Republican nomination for. He ran against incumbent Democratic Governor in the general election. Romney decried both the large influence of labor unions within the Democratic Party and the similarly large influence of big business within the Republican Party. His campaign was among the first to exploit the capabilities of. Romney won by some 80,000 votes and ended a fourteen-year stretch of Democratic rule in the state executive spot. His win was attributed to his appeal to independent voters and to those from the increasingly influential suburbs of Detroit, who by 1962 were more likely to vote Republican than the heavily Democratic residents of the city itself. Additionally, Romney had appeal to labor union members that was unusual for a Republican. Democrats won all the other statewide executive offices in the election, including Democratic incumbent in the separate election for. Romney's success caused immediate mention of him as a presidential possibility for 1964, and President John F. His initial concern was the implementation of the overhaul of the state's financial and revenue structure that had been authorized by the constitutional convention. In 1963, he proposed a comprehensive tax revision package that included a flat-rate , but general economic prosperity alleviated pressure on the state budget and the rejected the measure. Romney's early difficulties with the legislature helped undermine an attempted push that year of Romney as a national political figure by former associates. He is eager and sometimes impatient. Romney held a series of Governor's Conferences, which sought to find new ideas from public services professionals and community activists who attended. He opened his office in the to visitors, spending five minutes with every citizen who wanted to speak with him on Thursday mornings, and was always sure to shake the hands of schoolchildren visiting the capitol. He almost always eschewed political activities on Sunday, the Mormon Sabbath. He took a theatrical approach to governance, staging sudden appearances in settings where he might be politically unwelcome. One former aide later said that willful was too weak a word to describe him, and chose messianic instead. Although he belonged to a church that , Romney's hardscrabble background and subsequent life experiences led him to support the movement. The governor shirt sleeves walking in the first rank of an march, 600-strong, in protest of , June 1963 When came to Detroit in June 1963 and led the 120,000-strong , Romney designated the occasion Freedom March Day in Michigan, and sent state senator Stanley Thayer to march with King as his emissary, but did not attend himself because it was on Sunday. Romney did participate in a much smaller march protesting housing discrimination the following Saturday in , after King had left. Romney refused to change his position and increased his efforts towards civil rights. Delegates hold signs and balloons supporting the Michigan governor as a at the In the , Senator quickly became the likely Republican Party nominee. Goldwater represented a new wave of , of which the moderate Romney was not a part. Romney also felt that Goldwater would be a drag on Republicans running in all the other races that year, including Romney's own at the time, Michigan had two-year terms for its governor. Barry Goldwater didn't have any background to understand this, to fathom them, and I couldn't get through to him. Detroit newspapers indicated they would not support him in any such bid, and Romney quickly decided to honor his pledge to stay out of the contest. Scranton entered instead, but Goldwater prevailed decisively at the. Romney's name was entered into nomination as a by U. Representative of Michigan who had not wanted to choose between candidates during the primary campaign and he received the votes of 41 delegates in the roll call 40 of Michigan's 48 and one from Kansas. Romney speaking at the 1964 Republican National Convention At the convention, Romney fought for a strengthened civil rights plank in the party platform that would pledge action to eliminate discrimination at the state, local, and private levels, but it was defeated on a voice vote. He also failed to win support for a statement that condemned both left- and right-wing extremism without naming any organizations, which lost a standing vote by a two-to-one margin. Both of Romney's positions were endorsed by former President , who had an approach to civic responsibilities similar to Romney's. As the convention concluded, Romney neither endorsed nor repudiated Goldwater and vice presidential nominee , saying he had reservations about Goldwater's lack of support for civil rights and the political extremism that Goldwater embodied. For the fall 1964 elections, Romney cut himself off from the national ticket, refusing to even appear on the same stage with them and continuing to feud with Goldwater privately. Romney won 15 percent of Michigan's black vote, compared to Goldwater's two percent. In 1965, Romney visited for 31 days and said that he was continuing his strong support for U. During 1966, while son Mitt was away in France on missionary work, George Romney guided Mitt's fiancée in her conversion to Mormonism. Governor Romney continued his support of civil rights; after violence broke out during the in 1965, he marched at the front of a Detroit parade in solidarity with the marchers. In 1966, Romney had his biggest electoral success, winning re-election again by some 527,000 votes over Democratic lawyer this time to a four-year term, after a change in Michigan law. His share of the black vote rose to over 30 percent, a virtually unprecedented accomplishment for a Republican. By 1967, a looming deficit prompted the legislature to overhaul Michigan's tax structure. Personal and corporate state income taxes were created while business receipts and corporation franchise taxes were eliminated. Passage of an income levy had eluded past Michigan governors, no matter which party controlled of the legislature. Romney's success convincing Democratic and Republican factions to compromise on the details of the measure was considered a key test of his political ability. The massive in Detroit began during the predawn hours of July 23, 1967, precipitated by a police raid of a in a predominantly black neighborhood. As the day wore on and looting and fires got worse, Romney called in the and the. Clark indicated that to do so, Romney would have to declare a state of , which the governor was loath to do from fear that insurance companies would seize upon it as a reason to not cover losses owing to the riot. Elements of the and were mobilized outside of the city. Johnson went on national television to announce his actions and made seven references to Romney's inability to control the riot using state and local forces. Thousands of arrests took place and the rioting continued until July 27. The riot notwithstanding, by the end of Romney's governorship the state had made strong gains in civil rights related to public employment, government contracting, and access to public accommodations. Lesser improvements were made in combating discrimination in private employment, housing, education, and law enforcement. Considerable state and federal efforts were made during this time to improve the lot of Michigan's and , without much progress for either. Romney greatly expanded the size of state government while governor. Romney led the way for a large increase in state spending on education, and Michigan began to develop one of the nation's most comprehensive systems of higher education. There was a significant increase in funding support for local governments and there were generous benefits for the poor and unemployed. Romney's spending was enabled by the that generated continued government surpluses and by a consensus of both parties in Michigan to maintain extensive state bureaucracies and expand public sector services. The bipartisan coalitions that Romney worked with in the state legislature enabled him to reach most of his legislative goals. Main article: Romney's wide margin of re-election as governor in November 1966 thrust him to the forefront of national Republicans. In addition to his political record, the tall, square-jawed, handsome, graying Romney matched what the public thought a president should look like. Republican governors were determined not to let a Goldwater-sized loss recur, and neither Rockefeller nor Scranton wanted to run again; the governors quickly settled on Romney as their favorite for the. Romney campaign bumper sticker Former Congressman and chair became Romney's informal campaign manager. A after the November elections showed Romney as favored among Republicans over former Vice President Richard Nixon for the Republican nomination, 39 percent to 31 percent; a showed Romney besting President Johnson among all voters by 54 percent to 46 percent. Nixon considered Romney his chief opponent. Romney announced an exploratory phase for a possible campaign in February 1967, beginning with a visit to Alaska and the Rocky Mountain states. Romney's greatest weakness was a lack of foreign policy expertise and a need for a clear position on the. The press coverage of the trip focused on Vietnam and reporters were frustrated by Romney's initial reluctance to speak about it. The qualities that helped Romney as an industry executive worked against him as a presidential candidate; he had difficulty being articulate, often speaking at length and too forthrightly on a topic and then later correcting himself while maintaining he was not. The campaign, beset by internal rivalries, soon went through the first of several reorganizations. By then, Nixon had already overtaken Romney in Gallup's Republican preference poll, a lead he would hold throughout the rest of the campaign. The techniques that had brought Romney victories in Michigan, such as operating outside established partisan formulas and keeping a distance from Republican Party organizational elements, proved ineffective in a party nominating contest. Romney's poll numbers Date Percentage Margin November 1966 39% +8 January 1967 28% —11 February 1967 31% —10 March 1967 30% —9 April 1967 28% —15 June 1967 25% —14 August 1967 24% —11 September 1967 14% —26 October 1967 13% —29 November 1967 14% —28 January 1968 12% —30 February 1968 7% —44 Gallup Poll percentages of Republican Party voters preferring Romney for the presidential nomination, and margin ahead or behind usual poll leader Richard Nixon. Romney's national poll ratings continued to erode, and by May he had lost his edge over Johnson. The Detroit riots of July 1967 did not change his standing among Republicans, but did give him a bounce in national polls against the increasingly unpopular president. Romney would depart the race before the matter could be more definitively resolved, although the preponderance of opinion then and since has been that he was eligible. Romney was also the first Mormon to stage a credible run for the presidency. By this time, he was well known as a Mormon and perhaps the most nationally visible one since. But his membership in the LDS Church was scarcely mentioned at all during the campaign. What indirect discussion there was helped bring to national attention the church's policy regarding blacks, but the contrast of Romney's pro-civil rights stance deflected any criticism of him and indirectly benefited the image of the church. Some historians and Mormons suspected then and later that had Romney's campaign lasted longer and been more successful, his religion might have become a more prominent issue. A spate of books were published about Romney, more than for any other candidate, and included a friendly campaign biography, an attack from a former staffer, and a collection of Romney's speeches. By September 7, it found its way into prominence at The New York Times. Either he's a most naïve man or he lacks judgment. The topic of brainwashing quickly became newspaper editorial and television talk show fodder, and Romney bore the brunt of the topical humor. He nonetheless persevered, staging a three-week, 17-city tour of the nation's ghettos and disadvantaged areas that none of his advisors thought politically worthwhile. He sought to engage militants in dialogue, found himself exposed to the harsh realities and language of ghetto areas, and had an unusual encounter with and in San Francisco's. He spent the following months campaigning tirelessly, focusing on the , the first of the season, and doing all the on-the-ground activities known to that state: greeting workers at factory gates before dawn, having neighborhood meetings in private homes, and stopping at bowling alleys. He returned to Vietnam in December 1967 and made speeches and proposals on the subject, one of which presaged Nixon's eventual policy of. For a while, he got an improved response from voters. Romney at the Two weeks before the March 12 primary, an internal poll showed Romney losing to Nixon by a six-to-one margin in New Hampshire. Seeing his cause was hopeless, Romney announced his withdrawal as a presidential candidate on February 28, 1968. As a matter of fact, we are relieved. I aspired, and though I achieved not, I am satisfied. At the in Miami Beach, Romney refused to release his delegates to Nixon, something Nixon did not forget. Romney finished a weak fifth, with only 50 votes on the roll call 44 of Michigan's 48, plus six from Utah. When party liberals and moderates and others expressed dismay at Nixon's choice of as his running mate, Romney's name was placed into nomination for vice president by and pushed by several delegations. Romney said he did not initiate the move, but he made no effort to oppose it. Nixon saw the rebellion as a threat to his leadership and actively fought against it; Romney lost to Agnew 1,119—186. Romney, however, worked for Nixon's eventually successful campaign in the fall, which did earn him Nixon's gratitude. Presidential historian Theodore H. After the election, Nixon named Romney to be HUD. The president-elect made the announcement as part of a nationally televised presentation of his new cabinet on December 11, 1968. In actuality, Nixon distrusted Romney politically, and appointed him to a liberally oriented, low-profile federal agency partly to appease Republican moderates and partly to reduce Romney's potential to challenge for the. Romney was confirmed by the Senate without opposition on January 20, 1969, the day of Nixon's inauguration, and was sworn into office on January 22, with Nixon at his side. Romney resigned as Governor of Michigan that same day, and was succeeded by Lieutenant Governor. Milliken continued Romney's model of downplaying party label and ideology, and Republicans held onto the governorship for three more terms until 1983, though Michigan was one of the nation's most blue-collar states. As secretary, Romney conducted the first reorganization of the department since its 1966 creation. His November 1969 plan brought programs with similar functions together under unified, policy-based administration at the Washington level, and created two new assistant secretary positions. At the same time, he increased the number of regional and area offices and decentralized program operations and locality-based decisions to them. The mandated a federal commitment towards housing desegregation, and required HUD to orient its programs in this direction. Romney, filled with moral passion, wanted to address the widening economic and geographic gulf between whites and blacks by moving blacks out of inner-city ghettos into suburbs. Romney with Nixon at a Cabinet meeting in 1969 When the open housing proposal became public, local reaction was often hostile. Such was the reaction of many residents in , a predominately white blue-collar suburb of Detroit. While it had no formal discriminatory laws, most blacks were excluded by zoning practices, refusals to sell to them, and intimidatory actions of white property owners, many of whom were ethnic Polish and Catholic and had moved to the suburb as part of. By this time, Detroit was 40—50 percent black. HUD made Warren a prime target for Open Communities enforcement and threatened to halt all federal assistance to the town unless it took a series of actions to end racial discrimination there; town officials said progress was being made and that their citizens resented forced integration. Romney rejected this response, partly because when he was governor, Warren residents had thrown rocks and garbage and yelled obscenities for days at a biracial couple who moved into town. He emphasized that the government was encouraging rather than forced integration, but the local populace saw little difference and Romney was jeered as a police escort took him away from the meeting place. Romney was forced to back down on Warren and release federal monies to them unconditionally. When , subsequently resisted a HUD-sponsored plan for desegregated lower- and middle-income housing, Romney appealed to U. Attorney General for intervention. In September 1970, Mitchell refused and Romney's plan collapsed. Under Romney, HUD did establish stricter affirmative racial guidelines in relation to new public housing projects, but overall administration implementation of the Fair Housing Act was lacking. Some of the responsibility lay with Romney's inattentiveness to gaining political backing for the policy, including the failure to rally natural allies such as the. Based on his automotive industry experience, Romney thought that the cost of housing could be significantly reduced if in-factory techniques were used. This aspect of the program brought about strong opposition at the local suburban level and lost support in the White House as well. Over half of HUD's research funds during this time were spent on Operation Breakthrough, and it was modestly successful in its building goals. It did not revolutionize home construction, and was phased out once Romney left HUD. But it resulted indirectly in more modern and consistent and introduction of technological advances such as the. In any case, using conventional construction methods, HUD set records for the amount of construction of assisted housing for low- and moderate-income families. Toward the end of his term, Romney oversaw demolition of the infamous housing project in , which had become crime-ridden, drug-infested, and largely vacant. President Nixon and Secretary Romney confer at Romney was largely outside the president's inner circle and had minimal influence within the. His intense, sometimes bombastic style of making bold advances and awkward pullbacks lacked adequate guile to succeed in Washington. Desegregation efforts in employment and education had more success than in housing during the Nixon administration, but HUD's many missions and unwieldy structure, which sometimes worked at cross-purposes, made it institutionally vulnerable to political attack. Romney also failed to understand or circumvent Nixon's use of counsel Ehrlichman and as policy gatekeepers, resulting in de facto downgrading of the power of cabinet officers. Romney was used to being listened to and making his own decisions; he annoyed Nixon by casually interrupting him at meetings. By early 1970, Nixon had decided he wanted Romney removed from his position. Senate race in Michigan. Instead, Romney proposed that his wife Lenore run, and she received the backing of some state Republicans. There was also resistance to her candidacy and an initial suspicion that it was just a for keeping his options open. She barely survived a primary against a conservative opponent, then lost badly in the general election to incumbent Democrat. Romney blamed others for his wife having entered the race, when he had been the major force behind it. In late 1970, after opposition to Open Communities reached a peak, Nixon again decided that Romney should go. Still reluctant to dismiss him, Nixon tried to get Romney to resign by forcing him to capitulate on a series of policy issues. Romney surprised both Nixon and Haldeman by agreeing to back off his positions, and Nixon kept him as HUD secretary. In spring 1972, the FHA , an agency within HUD, was struck by scandal. Since passage of the and the creation of the Ginnie Mae , it had been responsible for helping the poor buy homes in inner-city areas via government-backed mortgages. These were financed by , the first issues of which Romney had announced in 1970. A number of FHA employees, along with a number of real estate firms and lawyers, were indicted for a scheme in which the value of cheap inner city homes was inflated and they were sold to black buyers who could not really afford them, based on using those government-backed mortgages. The government was stuck for the bad loans when owners defaulted, as the properties were overvalued and could not be resold at the inflated prices. Romney conceded that HUD had been unprepared to deal with speculators and had not been alert to earlier signs of illegal activity at the FHA. The FHA scandal gave Nixon the ability to shut down HUD's remaining desegregation efforts with little political risk; by January 1973, all federal housing funds had been frozen. In August 1972, Nixon announced Romney would inspect flood damage in , but neglected to tell Romney first. Much of the area lacked shelter six weeks after the storm, residents were angry, and Romney got into a three-way shouting match with Governor and a local citizens' representative. Feeling very frustrated, Romney wanted to resign immediately, but Nixon, worried about the fallout to his 1972 re-election campaign, insisted that Romney stay on. Romney agreed, although he indicated to the press that he would leave eventually. Romney finally turned in his resignation on November 9, 1972, following Nixon's re-election. His departure was announced on November 27, 1972, as part of the initial wave of departures from Nixon's first-term cabinet. He added that he would stay on as secretary until his successor could be appointed and confirmed, and did stay until Nixon's second inauguration on January 20, 1973. Despite all the setbacks and frustrations, political scientist Charles M. Lamb concluded that Romney pressed harder to achieve suburban integration than any prominent federal official in the ensuing 1970s through the 1990s. Romney was known as an advocate of public service, and was a passion of his. He initiated several volunteer programs while Governor of Michigan, and at the beginning of the Nixon administration chaired the Cabinet Committee on Voluntary Action. Out of this the was created: an independent, private, non-profit organization intended to encourage volunteerism on the part of American citizens and organizations, to assist in program development for voluntary efforts, and to make voluntary action an important force in American society. Romney's long interest in volunteerism stemmed from the Mormon belief in the power of institutions to transform the individual, but also had a secular basis. At the National Center's first meeting on February 20, 1970, he said: Americans have four basic ways of solving problems that are too big for individuals to handle by themselves. One is through the federal government. A second is through state governments and the local governments that the states create. The third is through the private sector — the economic sector that includes business, agriculture, and labor. The fourth method is the independent sector — the voluntary, cooperative action of free individuals and independent association. Voluntary action is the most powerful of these, because it is uniquely capable of stirring the people themselves and involving their enthusiastic energies, because it is their own — voluntary action is the people's action. In 1973, after he left the cabinet, Romney became chair and CEO of the National Center for Voluntary Action. In 1979, this organization merged with the Colorado-based and became known as ; Romney headed the new organization. The organization simplified its name to in 1984 and to the in 1990. Romney remained as chair of these organizations throughout this time. George Romney with former President and former Cabinet secretary during a conference at the in 1986 Within the LDS Church, Romney remained active and prominent, serving as of the Bloomfield Hills Stake and holding the office of , covering Michigan and northern Ohio. During the early part of the , Romney served on the along with LDS leader Monson. In 1987, he held a four-generation extended family reunion in Washington, where he showed the places and recounted the events of his life which had occurred there. Romney received the Points of Light Foundation's inaugural Lifetime Achievement Award from President Bush in April 1991. The Bush administration wanted to tap Romney to chair the new foundation, but he reportedly refused to head two organizations doing the same thing and suggested they merge. They did so in September 1991, and Romney became one of the founding directors of the. In the early 1990s, Romney was also involved in helping to set up the , one of the predecessors to the later. He gave speeches emphasizing the vital role of people helping people, and in 1993 inspired the first national meeting of. For much of his final two decades, Romney had been out of the political eye, but he re-emerged to the general public when he campaigned for his son, Mitt Romney, during the younger Romney's bid to unseat Senator in the. Romney had urged Mitt to enter the race and moved into his son's house for its duration, serving as an unofficial advisor. Romney was a vigorous surrogate for his son in public appearances and at fundraising events. And what Ted is trying to do is bring it into the picture. That same year, , Romney's ex-daughter-in-law formerly married to G. Scott Romney , decided to seek the Republican nomination for the U. While Mitt and G. Scott endorsed Ronna Romney, George Romney had endorsed her opponent and the eventual winner, , during the previous year when Ronna was considering a run but had not yet announced. A family spokesperson said that George Romney had endorsed Abraham before knowing Ronna Romney would run and could not go back on his word, although he did refrain from personally campaigning on Abraham's behalf. By January 1995, amid press criticism of the Points of Light Foundation engaging in ineffective, wasteful spending, Romney expressed concern that the organization had too high a budget. Active to the end, in July 1995, four days before his death, Romney proposed a presidential summit to encourage greater volunteerism and community service, and the night before his death he drove to a meeting of another volunteer organization. On July 26, 1995, Romney died of a at the age of 88 while he was doing his morning exercising on a at his home in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan; he was discovered by his wife Lenore but it was too late to save him. He was buried at the Fairview Cemetery in. In addition to his wife and children, Romney was survived by 23 grandchildren and 33 great-grandchildren. In 1998, named its Institute of Public Management in Romney's honor. The took place in Philadelphia in 1997, manifesting Romney's last volunteerism proposal, with the organization coming out of it. For many years, the Points of Light Foundation and its predecessor organization has given out an annual Lenore and George W. Romney Citizen Volunteer Award later retitled the George and Lenore Romney Citizen Volunteer Award ; the inaugural such award in 1987 went to George Romney himself. The Points of Light Foundation and the also give out a George W. Romney Volunteer Center Excellence Award later the George W. Romney Excellence Award at the annual National Conference on Community Volunteering and National Service later the National Conference on Volunteering and Service. Romney Volunteer Center itself is sponsored by the , and began during Romney's lifetime. Founded in 1998 with a grant from , the George W. Romney Institute of Public Management in the at honors the legacy left by Romney. Its mission is to develop people of high character who are committed to service, management, and leadership in the public sector and in non-profit organizations throughout the world. The building housing the main offices of the Governor of Michigan in is known as the following a 1997 renaming. The Governor George Romney Lifetime Achievement Award is given annually by the State of Michigan, to recognize citizens who have demonstrated a commitment to community involvement and volunteer service throughout their lifetimes. In 2010, in Michigan announced the opening of its George Romney Institute for Law and Public Policy. Its purpose is to explore the interdisciplinary nature of law and public policy and encourage practitioners, academics, and students to work together on issues in this realm. Letters of Catharine Cottam Romney, Plural Wife. Archived from PDF on June 9, 2011. A Striking Likeness: The Life of George Romney. Provo, Utah: George W. Romney Institute of Public Management, Brigham Young University. The cover story itself is:. Retrieved July 25, 2009. Retrieved December 24, 2009. Auto Editors of Consumer Guide. Retrieved July 2, 2009. Fifties Flashback: The American Car. Archived from on January 16, 2012. Auto Editors of Consumer Guide. Retrieved November 14, 2009. In the rings of Saturn. Archived from on April 15, 2012. As Long as They Don't Move Next Door: Segregation and Radical Conflict in American Neighborhoods. Clifton; Gill, William J. Suite 3505: The Story of the Draft Goldwater Movement. Ashland, Ohio: Ashbrook Press. Retrieved October 20, 2009. In Rucker, Walter C. Encyclopedia of American Race Riots. Retrieved January 19, 2012. State Government and Economic Performance Second ed. Independent Nation: How Centrists Can Change American Politics. Archived from on June 6, 2008. Retrieved July 19, 2009. Archived from on August 8, 2007. Retrieved July 20, 2009. Archived from on October 10, 2008. Paul; Parshall, Ardis E. Mormonism: A Historical Encyclopedia. Retrieved October 20, 2009. Cityscape: A Journal of Policy Development and Research. Domestic Policy and Ideology: Presidents and the American State, 1964—1987. Archived from on December 14, 2007. Retrieved July 22, 2009. By the People: A History of Americans as Volunteers Revised ed. Retrieved July 28, 2012. Retrieved March 18, 2012. Romney Institute of Public Management,. Archived from PDF on March 6, 2012. Archived from on July 11, 2012. Archived from on October 21, 2015. Archived from on January 19, 2013. Volunteer Center of Bergen County, Inc. Archived from PDF on July 25, 2011. Archived from on September 8, 2010. Archived from on January 24, 2012. Retrieved December 30, 2011. Retrieved June 14, 2009. Legislative Council, State of Michigan. Retrieved July 28, 2012. Hobbs + Black Architects. Archived from on November 1, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2009. Michigan Community Service Committee. Retrieved October 21, 2009. Nixon: Volume Two: The Triumph of a Politician 1962—1972. Knocking on the Door: The Federal Government's Attempt to Desegregate the Suburbs. Michigan: A History of the Wolverine State Third revised ed. Expanding the Frontiers of Civil Rights: Michigan, 1948—1968. George Romney and Michigan. New York: Vantage Press. Romney's Way: A Man and an Idea. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey:. The Mormon Image in the American Mind: Fifty Years of Public Perception. New York: Oxford University Press. Nixon's Civil Rights: Politics, Principle, and Policy. Housing Segregation in Suburban America Since 1960: Presidential and Judicial Politics. The Story of George Romney: Builder, Salesman, Crusader. Richard Nixon and the Quest for a New Majority. Chapel Hill, North Carolina:. George Romney: Mormon in Politics. New York: Meredith Press. Ending the Stalemate: Moving Housing and Urban Development into the Mainstream of America's Future. Mormon America: The Power and the Promise Revised ed. President Nixon: Alone in the White House. The Making of the President, 1964. The Making of the President, 1968. Nixon Agonistes: The Crisis of the Self-Made Man. Marathon: The Pursuit of the Presidency 1972—1976.
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