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This article is about the German city. For other uses, see. Hamburg English: , German: ; : Hamborg , officially the Free and City of Hamburg : Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Low German: Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg , is the of as well as one of the country's , with a population of roughly 1. The city lies at the core of the which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. Before the 1871 , it was a fully state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic by a class of hereditary or. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the , and military conflicts including. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river , Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm , the printing and publishing firm and the newspapers and are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest and the ,. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals , , , , and. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such as the , the , and the. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as and the. Former German Chancellor , who governed Germany for eight years, and , German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic. It in the world for in 2016. The and Kontorhausviertel were declared by in 2015. Hamburg is a major European , with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the and concert halls. It gave birth to movements like and paved the way for bands including. Hamburg is also known for several and a variety of musical shows. Hamburg is at a sheltered natural harbour on the southern fanning-out of the , between to the south and to the north, with the to the west and the to the northeast. It is on the at its confluence with the and. The islands of , , and , 100 kilometres 60 mi away in the , are also part of the city of Hamburg. The neighborhoods of , , Francop and are part of the old land region, the largest contiguous fruit-producing region in. Hamburg borders the of and. Climate Hamburg has an Cfb , influenced by its proximity to the coast and marine air masses that originate over the. Nearby wetlands also enjoy a maritime temperate climate. The amount of snowfall has differed a lot during the past decades: while in the late 1970s and early 1980s, at times heavy snowfall occurred, the winters of recent years have been less cold, with snowfall only on a few days per year. The warmest months are June, July, and August, with high temperatures of 20. Climate data for Hamburg Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year Record high °C °F 14. The name Hamburg comes from the first permanent building on the site, a which the Emperor ordered constructed in AD 808. It rose on rocky terrain in a marsh between the and the as a defence against incursion, and acquired the name Hammaburg, burg meaning castle or fort. The origin of the Hamma term remains uncertain, as does the exact location of the castle. Medieval Hamburg In 834, Hamburg was designated as the seat of a. The first bishop, , became known as the Apostle of the North. Two years later, Hamburg was united with as the. Hamburg was destroyed and occupied several times. In 845, 600 ships sailed up the and destroyed Hamburg, at that time a town of around 500 inhabitants. In 1030, King of burned down the city. The killed at least 60% of the population in 1350. Hamburg experienced several great fires in the medieval period. In 1265, an allegedly forged letter was presented to or by the Rath of Hamburg. This charter, along with Hamburg's proximity to the main trade routes of the and , quickly made it a major port in. Its trade alliance with in 1241 marks the origin and core of the powerful Hanseatic League of trading cities. On 8 November 1266, a contract between and Hamburg's traders allowed them to establish a hanse in London. This was the first time in history that the word hanse was used for the trading guild of the. In 1270, the solicitor of the , Jordan von Boitzenburg, wrote the first description of civil, criminal and procedural law for a city in Germany in the German language, the Ordeelbook Ordeel: sentence. On 10 August 1410, civil unrest forced a compromise German: Rezeß, literally meaning: withdrawal. This is considered the first. In 1529, the city embraced , and it received refugees from the and. Upon the dissolution of the in 1806, the of Hamburg was not incorporated into a larger administrative area while retaining special privileges , but became a state with the official title of the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg. Russian forces under finally freed the city in 1814. Hamburg re-assumed its pre-1811 status as a city-state in 1814. The of 1815 confirmed Hamburg's independence and it became one of 39 sovereign states of the 1815—1866. The fire started on the night of 4 May and was not extinguished until 8 May. It destroyed three churches, the town hall, and many other buildings, killing 51 people and leaving an estimated 20,000 homeless. Reconstruction took more than 40 years. After periodic political unrest, particularly in , Hamburg adopted in 1860 a semidemocratic constitution that provided for the election of the Senate, the governing body of the city-state, by adult taxpaying males. Other innovations included the separation of powers, the separation of Church and State, freedom of the press, of assembly and association. Hamburg became a member of the 1866—1871 and of the 1871—1918 , and maintained its self-ruling status during the 1919—1933. The city experienced its fastest growth during the second half of the 19th century, when its population more than quadrupled to 800,000 as the growth of the city's trade helped make it Europe's second-largest port. The , with as its director, became the world's largest shipping company around the start of the 20th century. Shipping companies sailing to , , and were based in the city. Hamburg was the departure port for many Germans and to emigrate to the in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Trading communities from all over the world established themselves there. A major outbreak of in 1892 was badly handled by the city government, which retained an unusual degree of independence for a German city. About 8,600 died in the largest German epidemic of the late 19th century, and the last major cholera epidemic in a major city of the Western world. Second World War on the Heiligengeistfeld in Hamburg — one of four enormous fortress-like bunkers which were built of reinforced concrete between 1942 and 1944 and equipped with anti-aircraft artillery for air defense In 1933—1945 , Hamburg was a from 1934 until 1945. During the , Hamburg suffered a series of Allied which devastated much of the city and the harbour. On 23 July 1943, Royal Air Force firebombing created a which spread from the Hauptbahnhof main railway station and quickly moved south-east, completely destroying entire boroughs such as , and. Thousands of people perished in these densely populated working class boroughs. The raids, codenamed by the , killed at least 42,600 civilians; the precise number is not known. About one million civilians were evacuated in the aftermath of the raids. While some of the boroughs destroyed were rebuilt as residential districts after the war, others such as Hammerbrook were entirely developed into office, retail and limited residential or industrial districts. The is in the greater in the north of Hamburg. At least 42,900 people are thought to have perished in the about 25 km 16 mi outside the city in the marshlands , mostly from epidemics and in the by the at the end of the war. Hamburg had the greatest concentration of Jews in Germany. Systematic started on 18 October 1941. These were all directed to or to. Most deported persons perished in. By the end of 1942 the Jüdischer Religionsverband in Hamburg was dissolved as an independent legal entity and its remaining assets and staff were assumed by the District Northwest. On 10 June 1943 the dissolved the Reichsvereinigung by a decree. The few remaining employees not somewhat protected by a were deported from Hamburg on 23 June to , where most of them perished. Post-war history Hamburg surrendered without a fight to on 3 May 1945, three days after 's death. After the , Hamburg formed part of the ; it became a state of the then in 1949. From 1960 to 1962, launched their career by playing in various music clubs like the Star Club in the city. On 16 February 1962, a caused the Elbe to rise to an all-time high, inundating one-fifth of Hamburg and killing more than 300 people. The — only 50 kilometres 30 mi east of Hamburg — separated the city from most of its hinterland and reduced Hamburg's global trade. Since in 1990, and the accession of several and into the in 2004, the has restarted ambitions for regaining its position as the region's largest deep-sea port for container shipping and its major commercial and trading centre. Main article: Year Pop. ±% 950 500 — 1430 16,000 +3100. There were 915,319 women and 945,440 men in Hamburg. For every 1,000 females, there were 1,033 males. In 2015, there were 19,768 births in Hamburg of which 38. In the city, the population was spread out with 16. According to the Statistical Office for Hamburg and , the number of people with a migrant background is at 34% 631,246. Immigrants come from 180 different countries. In 2016, there were 1,021,666 households, of which 17. The average household size was 1. Residents in Hamburg with foreign citizenship Hamburg residents with a foreign citizenship as of 31 December 2016 is as follows Citizenship Number % Total 288,338 100% 193,812 67. Since large-scale of the German language beginning in earnest in the 18th century, various Low German-colored dialects have developed contact-varieties of German on Low Saxon substrates. Originally, there was a range of such varieties, the best-known being the low-prestige ones of the working classes and the somewhat more bourgeois Hanseatendeutsch Hanseatic German , although the term is used in appreciation. All of these are now moribund due to the influences of Standard German used by education and media. However, the former importance of Low German is indicated by several songs, such as the famous , written in the 19th century when Low German was used more frequently. Many toponyms and street names reflect Low Saxon vocabulary, partially even in Low Saxon spelling, which is not standardised, and to some part in forms adapted to Standard German. Religion 55% Less than half of the residents of Hamburg are members of a religion. In late 2015, 27. An additional 55% stated they had no religion. About three years later May 2011 calculations based on census data for 21 countries of origin resulted in the number of about 143,200 Muslim migrants in Hamburg, making up 8. Hamburg is seat of one of the bishops of the and seat of the. There are several , including the run , which is the oldest in the city, the , and a community. Hamburg City Hall front view The city of Hamburg is one of 16 , therefore the 's office corresponds more to the role of a than to the one of a city mayor. As a , it is responsible for public education, correctional institutions and public safety; as a municipality, it is additionally responsible for libraries, recreational facilities, sanitation, water supply and welfare services. Since 1897, the seat of the government has been the Hamburg City Hall , with the office of the mayor, the meeting room for the Senate and the floor for the. Von Beust was briefly succeeded by in 2010, but the coalition broke apart on November, 28. On 7 March 2011 became mayor. After the 2015 election the and the formed a coalition. Boroughs The 7 boroughs and 104 quarters of Hamburg Hamburg is made up of seven boroughs German: Bezirke and subdivided into 104 quarters German: Stadtteile. There are 181 localities German: Ortsteile. The urban organization is regulated by the Constitution of Hamburg and several laws. Most of the quarters were former independent cities, towns or villages annexed into Hamburg proper. The last large annexation was done through the of 1937, when the cities , and were merged into the state of Hamburg. The Act of the Constitution and Administration of Hanseatic city of Hamburg established Hamburg as a state and a municipality. Some of the boroughs and quarters have been rearranged several times. Each borough is governed by a Borough Council German: Bezirksversammlung and administered by a Municipal Administrator German: Bezirksamtsleiter. The boroughs are not independent municipalities: their power is limited and subordinate to the. The borough administrator is elected by the Borough Council and thereafter requires confirmation and appointment by Hamburg's Senate. The quarters have no governing bodies of their own. The part of the North Sea in this aerial picture is called the and belongs administratively to the borough of. Some 39 people live here on the island visible just above the centre. In 2008, the boroughs were , , , , , and. From 1640 to 1864, Altona was under the administration of the. Altona was an independent city until 1937. Politically, the following quarters are part of Altona: , , , , , , , , , , , , ,. Located within this borough is former Jewish neighbourhood Grindel. Historicist Palmaille, Hamburg has architecturally significant buildings in a wide range of styles and no see. Churches are important landmarks, such as , which for a short time in the 19th century was the world's tallest building. Jacobi and covered with copper plates, and the , the radio and television tower no longer publicly accessible. The with a typical façade. The many are crossed by , more than , and put together. Hamburg has more bridges inside its city limits than any other city in the world. The , Freihafen Elbbrücken, and and Kennedybrücke dividing Binnenalster from Aussenalster are important roadways. The is a richly decorated Neo-Renaissance building finished in 1897. The tower is 112 metres 367 ft high. Its façade, 111 m 364 ft long, depicts the emperors of the Holy Roman Empire, since Hamburg was, as a Free Imperial City, only under the sovereignty of the emperor. The , a office building built in 1922 and designed by architect , is shaped like an ocean liner. Europe's largest urban development since 2008, the , will house about 10,000 inhabitants and 15,000 workers. The plan includes designs by and. The Elbe Philharmonic Hall , opened in January 2017, houses concerts in a sail-shaped building on top of an old warehouse, designed by architects. The many parks are distributed over the whole city, which makes Hamburg a very verdant city. The biggest parks are the , the and. The park and its buildings were designed by in the 1910s. Within the park are various thematic gardens, the biggest Japanese garden in Germany, and the , which is a historic that now consists primarily of. The is a modern maintained by the. Besides these, there are many more parks of various sizes. In 2014 Hamburg celebrated a birthday of park culture, where many parks were reconstructed and cleaned up. Moreover, every year there are the famous water-light-concerts in the park from May to early October. Hamburg has more than 40 theatres, 60 museums and 100 music venues and clubs. In 2005, more than 18 million people visited concerts, exhibitions, theatres, cinemas, museums, and cultural events. More than 8,552 taxable companies average size 3. There are five companies in the creative sector per thousand residents as compared to three in Berlin and 37 in London. Hamburg has entered the scheme, and was awarded the title of European Green Capital for 2011. The opened in the HafenCity quarter in 2008. There are various specialised museums in Hamburg, such as the Archaeological Museum Hamburg in , the Museum der Arbeit , and several museums of local history, for example the Kiekeberg Open Air Museum Freilichtmuseum am. Two museum ships near Landungsbrücken bear witness to the freight ship and cargo sailing ship era. The world's largest model railway museum with 15. Emigration City is dedicated to the millions of Europeans who emigrated to North and South America between 1850 and 1939. Visitors descending from those overseas emigrants may search for their ancestors at computer terminals. Music is a leading opera company. Its orchestra is the. The city's other well-known orchestra is the. The main concert venue is the new concert hall. Before it was the , Musikhalle Hamburg. The Laeiszhalle also houses a third orchestra, the. Since the German premiere of in 1986, there have always been running, including , , and. This density, the highest in Germany, is partly due to the major musical production company being based in the city. Prior to the group's initial recording and widespread fame, Hamburg provided residency and performing venues for the from 1960 to 1962. Hamburg has nurtured a number of pop musicians. Identical twins and Tom Kaulitz from the rock band live and maintain a recording studio in Hamburg, where they recorded their second and third albums, and. Singer also lives in Hamburg. There are German hip hop acts, such as , , and. There is a substantial and scene, which gathers around the , a former theatre located in the. The city was a major centre for in the 1980s. The band was also formed in Hamburg, initially as a performance art project. The influences of these and other bands from the area helped establish the subgenre of. Hamburg has a vibrant psychedelic trance community, with record labels such as. Festivals and regular events Annual Port Anniversary Hamburg is noted for several festivals and regular events. Some of them are street festivals, such as the festival or the Alster fair German: , held at the. The is northern Germany's biggest funfair, held three times a year. The annual biker's service in attracts tens of thousands of. Christmas markets in December are held at the square, among other places. The long night of museums German: Lange Nacht der Museen offers one entrance fee for about 40 museums until midnight. The sixth Festival of Cultures was held in September 2008, celebrating multi-cultural life. The — a film festival originating from the 1950s Film Days German: Film Tage — presents a wide range of films. The offers a venue for trade shows, such hanseboot, an international boat show, or Du und deine Welt, a large consumer products show. Regular sports events—some open to pro and amateur participants—are the cycling competition , the , the biggest marathon in Germany after Berlin, the tennis tournament and equestrian events like the. Since 2007, Hamburg has the music and art festival. It takes place every year in summer in. Today eel is often included to meet the expectations of unsuspecting diners. There is Bratkartoffeln , Finkenwerder Scholle Low Saxon Finkwarder Scholl, pan-fried plaice , Pannfisch pan-fried fish with mustard sauce , Low Saxon Rode Grütt, related to Danish , a type of summer pudding made mostly from berries and usually served with cream, like Danish rødgrød med fløde and a mixture of corned beef, mashed potatoes and beetroot, a cousin of the Norwegian lapskaus and 's , all offshoots off an old-time one-pot meal that used to be the main component of the common sailor's humdrum diet on the high seas. Alsterwasser in reference to the city's river, the is the local name for a type of , a concoction of equal parts of beer and carbonated lemonade Zitronenlimonade , the lemonade being added to the beer. There is the curious regional dessert pastry called. Looking rather like a flattened croissant, it is similar in preparation but includes a cinnamon and sugar filling, often with raisins or brown sugar. In fact, while by no means identical, the cuisines of Hamburg and , especially of , have a lot in common. This also includes a predilection for open-faced sandwiches of all sorts, especially topped with cold-smoked or pickled fish. The American may have developed from Hamburg's : a pan-fried patty usually larger and thicker than its American counterpart made from a mixture of ground beef, soaked , egg, chopped onion, salt and pepper, usually served with potatoes and vegetables like any other piece of meat, not usually on a bun. The Oxford Dictionary defined a Hamburger steak in 1802: a sometimes-smoked and -salted piece of meat, that, according to some sources, came from Hamburg to America. There are restaurants which offer most of these dishes, especially in the. The boroughs of , and are known for being home to many radical left-wing and anarchist groups, culminating every year during the traditional May Day demonstrations. The is a former theatre, which was in 1989 in the wake of re-development plans for that area. Since then, the Rote Flora has become one of the most well-known strongholds against gentrification and a place for radical culture throughout Germany and Europe. Especially during the in nearby , the Rote Flora served as an important venue for organising the counter-protests that were taking place back then. During the , which took place in Hamburg from 7—8 July that year, protestors clashed violently with the police in the area and particularly around the Rote Flora. On 7 July, several cars were set on fire and street barricades were erected to prevent the police from entering the area. In response to that, the police made heavy use of water cannons and tear gas in order to scatter the protestors. However, this was met with strong resistance by protestors, resulting in a total of 160 injured police and 75 arrested participants in the protests. After the summit, however, the Rote Flora issued a statement, in which it condemns the arbitrary acts of violence that were committed by some of the protestors whilst generally defending the right to use violence as a means of self-defence against police oppression. In particular, the spokesperson of the Rote Flora said that the autonomous cultural centre had a traditionally good relationship with its neighbours and local residents, since they were united in their fight against gentrification in that neighbourhood. British culture English Theatre of Hamburg at Lerchenfeld 14 There are several English-speaking communities, such as the Caledonian Society of Hamburg, The British Club Hamburg, British and Commonwealth Luncheon Club, Anglo-German Club , Professional Women's Forum, The British Decorative and Fine Arts Society, The English Speaking Union of the Commonwealth, The Scottish Country Dancers of Hamburg, The Hamburg Players e. English Language Theatre Group, The , several cricket clubs, and The Morris Minor Register of Hamburg. Furthermore, the Anglo-Hanseatic Lodge No. There is also a 400-year-old Anglican church community worshiping at St Thomas Becket Church. American and international English-speaking organisations include The American Club of Hamburg , , the American Women's Club of Hamburg, the English Speaking Union, the German-American Women's Club, and The International Women's Club of Hamburg e. The American Chamber of Commerce handles matters related to business affairs. The serves school children. Memorials A memorial for successful English engineer , who reorganized, beginning in 1842, the drinking water and sewage system and thus helped to fight against cholera, is near Baumwall train station in Vorsetzen street. Inserted into the pavement in front of their former houses, the blocks draw attention to the victims of Nazi persecution. The city has a relatively high employment rate, at 88 percent of the working-age population, employed in over 160,000 businesses. Banking Hamburg has for centuries been a commercial centre of Northern Europe, and is the most important city of. The city is the seat of , the , and. The is the oldest of its kind in Germany. Port at the The most significant economic unit is the , which ranks third to and in Europe and 17th-largest worldwide with transshipments of 8. International trade is also the reason for the large number of consulates in the city. Although situated 68 miles 110 km up the Elbe, it is considered a sea port due to its ability to handle large ocean-going vessels. Industrial production Heavy industry of Hamburg includes the making of steel, aluminium, copper and various large shipyards such as. Hamburg, along with and , is an important location of the civil industry. Hamburg is also home to , the famed maker of technical drawing instruments and pens. HafenCity Western HafenCity area and UNESCO World Heritage The is Europe's largest urban development project and is located in the district. It consists of the area of the Great Grasbrook, the northern part of the former Elbe island , and the warehouse district on the former Elbe island Kehrwieder and Wandrahm. It is bordered to the north, separated by the customs channel to Hamburg's city center, west and south by the Elbe and to the east, bounded by the upper harbor,. The district is full of rivers and streams and is surrounded by channels, and has a total area of about 2. HafenCity has 155 hectares in the area formerly belonging to the free port north of the Great Grasbrook. Residential units for up to 12,000 people are planned to be built on the site by around the mid-2020s, and jobs for up to 40,000 people, mainly in the office sector, should be created. It is the largest ongoing urban development project in Hamburg. According to the person responsible for the development and commercialization of HafenCity, HafenCity Hamburg GmbH, half of the master plan underlying structural construction is already completed, whereas the other half is either under construction or is in the construction preparation stages. Many companies operating in have moved into HafenCity or started there. In addition to cruise agents such as the many that have no direct connection to the port or ships can be found in HafenCity. Tourism , one of Europe's most luxurious shopping streets In 2016, more than 6,566,071 visitors with 13,331,001 overnight stays visited the city. Hamburg has one of the fastest-growing tourism industries in Germany. From 2001 to 2007, the overnight stays in the city increased by 55. A typical Hamburg visit includes a tour of the city hall and the grand church called the Michel , and visiting the old warehouse district and the Landungsbrücken. Sightseeing buses connect these points of interest. Major destinations also include. The area of in the quarter is Europe's largest red light district and home of strip clubs, brothels, bars and nightclubs. The singer and actor is strongly associated with St. Others prefer the laid-back neighbourhood Schanze with its street cafés, or a barbecue on one of the beaches along the river Elbe. Hamburg's famous zoo, the , was founded in 1907 by as the first zoo with moated, barless enclosures. In 2016, the average visitor spent two nights in Hamburg. The majority of visitors come from Germany. Most foreigners are European, especially from 395,681 overnight stays , the 301,000 overnight stays , 340,156 overnight stays , about 252,397 overnight stays and the about 182,610 overnight stays. The largest group from outside Europe comes from the 206,614 overnight stays. The has docked regularly since 2004, and there were six departures planned from 2010 onwards. Media headquarters Media businesses employ over 70,000 people. The which includes the television station is based in Hamburg, as are the commercial television station , the Christian television station and the civil media outlet. There are regional radio stations such as. Some of Germany's largest publishing companies, , , are located in the city. Many national newspapers and magazines such as and are produced in Hamburg, as well as some special-interest newspapers such as. There are music publishers, such as Germany, and firms such as and Germany. Hamburg was one of the locations for the film. The has been the location for many scenes, including the 1994 Beatles film. The film was set in and filmed in Hamburg. Hamburg was also shown in where Fievel Mousekewitz and his family immigrate to America in the hopes to escape cats. Neue and Freihafen-Elbbrücke Hamburg is a major transportation hub, connected to four motorways and the most important railway junction on the route to Scandinavia. Bridges and tunnels connect the northern and southern parts of the city, such as the Alter Elbtunnel or St. Pauli Elbtunnel official name which opened in 1911, now is major tourist sight, and the Elbtunnel the crossing of a. There is also the smaller , used only as a company airport for. Some airlines market in as serving Hamburg. Tickets sold by one company are valid on all other HVV companies' services. The HVV was the first organisation of this kind worldwide. The heavy railway system comprises six lines and the four lines — U-Bahn is short for Untergrundbahn underground railway. Approximately 41 km 25 mi of 101 km 63 mi of the U-Bahn is underground; most is on embankments or viaduct or at ground level. Older residents still speak of the system as Hochbahn elevated railway , also because the operating company of the subway is the. The connects satellite towns in Schleswig-Holstein to the city. On some routes regional trains of Germany's major railway company and the regional trains may be used with an HVV ticket. Except at the four bigger stations of the city, , , and regional trains do not stop inside the city. The was opened in 1866 and shut down in 1978. Gaps in the rail network are filled by more than 669 bus routes, operated by single-deck two-, three- and four-axle diesel buses. Hamburg has no or , but has hydrogen-fueled buses. The buses run frequently during working hours, with buses on some so-called MetroBus routes as often as every 2 minutes. MetroBuses run all around the clock, every day at the year at least every half-hour. There are eight ferry lines along the , operated by , that fall under the aegis of the HVV. While mainly used by citizens and dock workers, they can also be used for sightseeing tours. An on 3 in the Airbus plant at. The international airport at Hamburg Fuhlsbüttel, official name : HAM, : EDDH is the fifth biggest and oldest airport in Germany, having been established in 1912 and located about 5 miles 8 kilometres from the city centre. About 60 airlines provide service to 125 destination airports, including some long distance destinations like on , on , and on ; is the hub carrier, with the most flights and operates one of its biggest at the Hamburg airport. The second airport is located in , official name : XFW, : EDHI. It is about 10 km 6 mi from the city centre and is a nonpublic airport for the plant. It is the second biggest Airbus plant, after , and the third biggest aviation manufacturing plant after and Toulouse; the plant houses the final assembly lines for A318, A319, A320, A321 and aircraft. Public transportation statistics The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Hamburg, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 58 min. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 11 min, while 11% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 8. Utilities Electricity for Hamburg and Northern Germany is largely provided by , formerly the state-owned Hamburgische Electricitäts-Werke. Vattenfall Europe used to operate the and , both taken out of service as part of the. In addition, operates the near Hamburg. There are also the coal-fired , and Moorburg Plant, and the fuel-cell power plant in the HafenCity quarter. VERA Klärschlammverbrennung uses the of the Hamburg wastewater treatment plant; the Pumpspeicherwerk Geesthacht is a pump storage power plant and a solid waste combustion power station is Müllverwertung Borsigstraße. Hamburg is sometimes called Germany's capital of sport since no other city has more first-league teams and international sports events. The HSV was the oldest team of the Bundesliga, playing in the league since its beginning in 1963 until a change of results saw them relegated from the in 2018. HSV is a six-time German champion, a three-time German cup winner and triumphed in the European Cup in 1983, and has played in the group stages of the twice: in 2000—01 and in 2006—07. They play at the average attendance in the was 52,916. In addition, was a football club that came in second place in the and qualified to play alongside in the for the first time since the. Pauli's home games take place at the. The represented Hamburg until 2016 in the , the premier league in Germany. In 2007, HSV Handball won the European Cupwinners Cup. The Club won the league in the 2010—11 season and had an average attendance of 10. The most recent success for the team was the win in 2013. Since 2014, the club has suffered from economic problems and was almost not allowed the playing licence for the 2014—15 season. On 20 January 2016 however, their licence was removed due to violations following the continued economic struggles. In 2016—17, they are not allowed to play in the first or second league. The team lives on through their former second team now their main team in the third division. The BCJ Hamburg played in the from 1999 to 2001. Since then, teams from Hamburg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division and aim to take on the heritage of the BCJ Hamburg. The Towers play their home games at the Inselparkhalle in. Hamburg is the nation's capital and dominates the men's as well as the women's Bundesliga. Hamburg hosts many top teams such as Uhlenhorster Hockey Club, Harvesterhuder Hockey Club and Club An Der Alster. The are one of Germany's top lacrosse clubs. The club has grown immensely in the last several years and includes at least one youth team, three men's, and two women's teams. The team participates in the Deutsch Lacrosse Verein. The Hamburg Warriors are part of the Harvestehuder Tennis- und Hockey-Club e. There are also the , an club. Pauli team dominates women's rugby in Germany. Other first-league teams include VT Aurubis Hamburg Volleyball , Hamburger Polo Club, and American Football. There are also several minority sports clubs, including four clubs. Hamburg also hosts events at Reitstadion Deutsches Derby in jumping and dressage and. The Hamburg Marathon is the biggest in Germany after Berlin's. In 2008 23,230 participants were registered. World Cup events in cycling, the UCI ProTour competition , and the World Cup event Hamburg City Man are also held in here. Volksparkstadion was used as a site for the. In 2010 UEFA held the final of the in the arena. Hamburg made a bid for the , but 51. Meanwhile, Hamburg's partner city voted in favour of hosting the event, with almost 66 percent of all participants supporting the bid. Opponents of the bid had argued that hosting the 33rd Olympic Games would cost the city too much in public funds. The school system is managed by the Ministry of Schools and Vocational Training Behörde für Schule und Berufsbildung. The system had approximately 191,148 students in 221 and 188 in 2016. There are 32 public libraries in Hamburg. Nineteen universities are located in Hamburg, with about 100,589 university students in total, including 9,000 resident students. Six universities are public, including the largest, the Universität Hamburg with the , the , the , the and the. Seven universities are private, like the and the. The city has also smaller private colleges and universities, including many religious and special-purpose institutions, such as the formerly the University of the Federal Armed Forces Hamburg. Hamburg is home to one of the oldest international schools in Germany, the. Hamburg has nine around the world. A hurried and superficial search turns up only crayfish, people from Pinneberg, and those from Bergedorf. One accompanies the contented little kippers of a striving society; mackerels from Stade, sole from Finkenwerder, herrings from Cuxhaven swim in expectant throngs through the streets of my city and lobsters patrol the stock exchange with open claws.... The first so-called unguarded glance always lands on the bottom of the sea and falls into twilight of the aquarium. Portal of the Land Statistics Office Hamburg. Retrieved 15 November 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2014. Retrieved 30 September 2008. Retrieved 14 September 2013. Juni 1943', Staatsarchiv Hamburg, Bestand Oberfinanzpräsident, Arb. November 1991 bis 29. März 1992, Ulrich Bauche ed. Retrieved 14 July 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2018. Niendorf, Nienstedten rather than Neuen... Further toponyms with no close Standard German correspondents appear, such as... Like in other parts of Northern Germany... Retrieved 30 April 2017. Retrieved 8 June 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2013. Retrieved 29 December 2009. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Archived from on 18 September 2009. Retrieved 30 September 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Archived from on 13 June 2002. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Archived from on 1 December 2005. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Archived from on 20 October 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009. Retrieved 9 February 2017. Retrieved 9 February 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017. Retrieved 15 December 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2009. Archived from on 28 April 2016. Retrieved 14 September 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015. Retrieved 14 September 2015. Retrieved 13 September 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2014. Retrieved 1 November 2017. The official website of the Port of Hamburg. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Ramesh 25 December 2000. Archived from on 20 July 2009. Retrieved 11 August 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Archived from on 6 September 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017. In: Hamburger Abendblatt from 15 January 2010, p. Retrieved 1 October 2008. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved 19 June 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a. Retrieved 25 January 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Retrieved 1 November 2017. Archived from on 23 October 2007. Retrieved 29 December 2008. Archived from on 25 June 2013. Retrieved 5 August 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2013.