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28 June 2022
Wild plants could be capable of resisting herbicides.
Weedy rice can pick up transgenes from genetically modified crops through cross-pollination. Credit: Xiao Yang
The use of genetic modification of crops to make them resistant to herbicides is widely employed to create advantages for weedy rice varieties. https://www.komeri.com/disp/CKmSfGoodsPageMain_001.jsp?GOODS_NO=1713321 This suggests that these modifications may have an impact on the natural environment beyond farms.
Many crop varieties are genetically modified so that they can ward off the effects of glyphosate. This herbicide was first sold under the tradename Roundup. Farmers can get rid of herbicides from their fields by using glyphosate, without harming their crops by having this resistance.
Glyphosate can inhibit plant growth by blocking EPSP synase which is an enzyme involved in the production of amino acids, as well as other chemical compounds which comprise around 35% of plants' mass. ラウンドアップ 持続期間 Genetic modification, like the Roundup Ready crops manufactured by Monsanto in St. Louis, Missouri, involves inserting genes into the genetic code in order to increase EPSP production. The genes are typically derived from bacteria that have been infected by plants.
The plant can endure the negative effects of glyphosate because it has an additional EPSP-synthase. ラウンドアップ Biotechnology laboratories are trying to utilize genes that come from plants instead of bacteria to boost EPSP synthase. This is mainly due to the US law permits regulatory approval that allows organisms with transgenes to be accepted.
A few studies have looked into whether transgenes that confer glyphosate tolerance can -- once they become weedy or wild relatives by cross-pollinatingenhance the plant's survival and reproduce. Norman Ellstrand of the University of California, Riverside, said that the traditional expectation was that any transgene could cause disadvantage in nature when there was no pressure to select. This is due to the fact that any additional machinery would lower the effectiveness of.
ラウンドアップ Lu Baorong is an Ecologist at Fudan University Shanghai. His research shows that resistance to glyphosate is a major fitness benefit, even though it's not applied.
Lu and his coworkers genetically modified the rice species to express its EPSP synthase. Then, they crossed it with the marijuana-producing parent.
ラウンドアップ 古い The researchers allowed offspring of crossbreeding to crossbreed with each other, creating second-generation hybrids that are genetically identical to each other except for the amount of copies the gene encodes EPSP synase. The hybrids with more copies had a higher chance to produce more tryptophan and have higher enzyme levels than the unmodified hybrids.
The researchers also found that transgenic hybrids have higher rates of photosynthesis. They also grew more shoots and flowers and produced 48 to 125 percent more seeds per plant than non-transgenic hybrids -with or without the chemical glyphosate.
Lu believes that making weedy, invading rice more competitive might hinder farmers to recoup the damage caused by this bug.
Brian Ford-Lloyd (a UK plant geneticist) states that if the EPSP synthase genes gets into wild rice species, their genetic diversity, which is essential to protect could be threatened. The transgene will surpass the natural species. This is among the most evident examples of plausible negative effects [of GM crop on the environment."
The public has a perception that genetically engineered plants with more copies or microorganisms' genes are more secure than those that only contain the genes of their owners. Lu says, "Our study shows this is not the case."
The finding calls for a rethinking of future regulations for the genetically altered crops, researchers say. Ellstrand says "Some people believe that regulation of biosafety should be looser." Ellstrand adds: "But this study has shown that novel products still need to be evaluated with care."
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